The mode of my fatherТs linguistic construction, which as is well known was carried on throughout his life and in very close relation to the evolution of the narratives, shows the same unceasing movement as do they: a quality fundamental to the art, in which (as I believe) finality and a system fixed at every point was not its underlying aim. But while his СLanguageТ and his СliteratureТ were so closely interwoven, to trace the history of the literary process through many texts (even though the trail might be greatly obscured) is of its nature enormously much easier than to trace the astounding complexity of the phonological and grammatical evolution of the Elvish languages.

Those languages were conceived, of course, from the very beginning in a deeply СhistoricalТ way: they were embodied in a history, the history of the Elves who spoke them, in which was to be found, as it evolved, a rich terrain for linguistic separation and interaction: Сa language requires a suitable habitation, and a history in which it can developТ (Letters no. 294, p. 375). Every element in the languages, every element in every word, is in principle historically СexplicableТЦas are the elements in languages that are not СinventedТЦand the successive phases of their intricate evolution were the delight of their creator. СInventionТ was thus altogether distinct from СartificialityТ. In his essay СA Secret ViceТ (The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, 1983,p. 198) my father wrote of his liking for Esperanto, a liking which, he said, arose Сnot least because it is the creation ultimately of one man, not a philologist, and is therefore something like a "human language bereft of the inconveniences due to too many successive cooks"Цwhich is as good a description of the ideal artificial language (in a particular sense) as I can give.Т The Elvish languages are, in this sense, very inconvenient indeed, and they image the activities of countless cooks (unconscious, of course, of what they were doing to the ingredients they had come by): in other words, they image language not as Сpure structureТ, without СbeforeТ and СafterТ, but as growth, in time.

On the other hand, the linguistic histories were nonetheless СimagesТ, invented by an inventor, who was free to change those histories as he was free to change the story of the world in which they took place; and he did so abundantly. The difficulties inherent in the study of the history of any language or group of languages are here therefore compounded: for this history is not a datum of historical fact to be uncovered, but an unstable, shifting view of what the history was. Moreover, the alterations in the history were not confined to features of СinteriorТ linguistic development: the СexteriorТ conception of the languages and their relations underwent change, even profound change; and it is not to be thought that the representation of the languages in letters, in tengwar, should be exempt.

It must be added that my fatherТs characteristic method of work - elaborate beginnings collapsing into scrawls; manuscripts overlaid with layer upon layer of emendation - here find their most extreme expression; and also that the philological papers were left in the greatest disorder. Without external dating, the only way to determine sequence (apart from the very general and uncertain guide of changing handwriting) is in the internal evidence of the changing philology itself; and that, of its nature, does not offer the sort of clues that lead through the maze of the literary texts. The clues it does offer are very much more elusive. It is also unfortunately true that hasty handwriting and ill-formed letters are here far more destructive; and a great deal of my fatherТs late philological writing is, I think, strictly unusable.

It will be seen then that the philological component in the evolution of Middle-earth can scarcely be analysed, and most certainly cannot be presented, as can the literary texts. In any case, my father was perhaps more interested in the processes of change than he was in displaying the structure and use of the languages at any given time - though this is no doubt due to some extent to his so often starting again at the beginning with the primordial sounds of the Quendian languages, embarking on a grand design that could not be sustained (it seems indeed that the very attempt to write a definitive account produced immediate dissatisfaction and the desire for new constructions: so the most beautiful manuscripts were soon treated with disdain).

The most surprising thing, perhaps, is that he was so little concerned to make comprehensive vocabularies of the Elvish tongues. He never made again anything like the little packed СdictionaryТ of the original Gnomish language on which I drew in the appendices to The Book of Lost Tales. It may be that such an undertaking was always postponed to the day, which would never come, when a sufficient finality had been achieved; in the mean-time, it was not for him a prime necessity. He did not, after all, СinventТ new words and names arbitrarily: in principle, he devised them from within the historical structure, proceeding from the СbasesТ or primitive stems, adding suffix or prefix or forming com-pounds, deciding (or, as he would have said, Сfinding outТ) when the word came into the language, following through the regular changes of form that it would thus have undergone, and observing the possibilities of formal or semantic influence from other words in the course of its history. Such a word would then exist for him, and he would know it. As the whole system evolved and expanded, the possibilities for word and name became greater and greater.

The nearest he ever came to a sustained account of Elvish vocabulary is not in the form of nor intended to serve as a dictionary in the ordinary sense, but is an etymological dictionary of word-relationships: an alphabetically-arranged list of primary stems, or СbasesТ, with their derivatives (thus following directly in form from the original СQenya LexiconТ which I have described in I. 246). It is this work that is given here. My father wrote a good deal on the theory of sundokarme or Сbase-structureТ (see sud and kar in the Etymologies), but like everything else it was frequently elaborated and altered, and I do not attempt its presentation here. My object in giving the Etymologies* in this book is rather as an indication of the development, and mode of development, of the vocabularies of the Elvish languages at this period than as a first step in the elucidation of the linguistic history; and also because they form an instructive companion to the narrative works of this time.

It is a remarkable document, which must be reckoned among the most difficult of all the papers containing unique material which my father left. The inherent difficulties of the text are increased by the very bad condition of the manuscript, which for much of its length is battered, torn, crumpled at the edges, and discoloured (so that much that was very lightly pencilled is now barely visible and extremely hard to decipher). In some sections the maze of forms and cancellations is so dense, and for the most part made so quickly, that one cannot be sure what my fatherТs final intention was: in these parts he was working out potential connections and derivations on the spot, by no means setting down already determined histories. There were many routes by which a name might have evolved, and the whole etymological system was like a kaleidoscope, for a decision in one place was likely to set up disturbing ripples in etymological relations among quite distinct groups of words. Moreover, complexity was (as it were) built in, for the very nature of the СbasesТ set words on phonetic collision courses from their origin.

The work varies a great deal, however, between its sections (which are the groups of base-stems beginning with the same initial letter). The worst parts, both in their physical condition and in the disorganisation of their content, are the central letters of the alphabet, beginning with E. As the text proceeds the amount of subsequent alteration and addition, and resultant confusion, diminishes, and when P and R arc reached the etymologies, though rough and hasty, are more orderly. With these groups my father began to use smaller sheets of paper which are much better preserved, and from S to the end the material does not present serious difficulty; while the concluding section (W) is written out very legibly in ink (in this book the last section is Y, but that is not so in the original: see p. 346). These relatively clear and orderly entries are found also in the A-stems, while the B-stems are distinct from all the rest in that they were written out as a very finished and indeed beautiful manuscript. The entries under D are in two forms: very rough material that was partly overwritten more legibly in ink, and then a second, much clearer and more ordered version on the smaller sheets.

I have not been able to reach any certain interpretation of all this, or find an explanation that satisfies all the conditions in detail. On the whole I am inclined to think that the simplest is most likely to be right in essentials. I have little doubt that the dictionary was composed progressively, through the letters of the alphabet in succession; and it may be that the very making of such a dictionary led to greater certainty in the whole etymological system, and greater clarity and assurance in its setting-out, as the work proceededЦbut this also led to much change in the earlier parts. Having reached the end of the alphabet, my father then turned back to the beginning, with the intention of putting into better order the sections which had been first made and had suffered the most alteration; but this impulse petered out after the entries under D. If this were so, the original A and B entries were subsequently destroyed or lost; whereas in the case of D both survive (and it is noticeable that the second version of the D-entries differs from the former chiefly in arrangement, rather than in further etymological development).

Turning now to the question of date, I give some characteristic examples of the evidence on which I think firm conclusions can be based.

The original entry eled gave the meaning of the stem as СdepartТ, with a derivative Elda СdepartedТ. Since this was the interpretation of Eldar in the Lhammas І2 and in QS І23 as those works were originally written, and first appears in them, the original entries under E clearly belong to that time. This interpretation was replaced in both the Lhammas and QS by carefully made emendations changing the meaning to СStar-folkТ, and introducing the term Avari, with the meaning СDepartingТ. Now the meaning СStar-folkТ appears in a second entry eled replacing the first (and to all appearance made not long after); while the stem ab, abar bore, as first written, the meaning СdepartТ, and the derivative Avari was defined as СElves who left Middle-earthТ. Thus the original A-entries and some at least of the alterations under E belong to the phase of the earliest alterations to QS.

In QS the meaning of Avari was then changed to Сthe UnwillingТ (see p. 219), and at the same time the root-meaning of ab, abar in the Etymologies was changed to Сrefuse, denyТ and the interpretation of Avari to СElves who never left Middle-earth or began the march.Т This change can be dated from the note of 20 November 1937 (given on p. 200) in which my father said that Avari was to replace Lembi as the name of the Elves who remained in the East, while Lembi were to be СIlkorin TeleriТ, i.e. the Eldar who remained in Beleriand (see QS ІІ29-30 and p. 219). These changes were incorporated in the typescript of QS, which seems to have been in being by the beginning of February 1938 (p. 200). (The additional entry leb, lem shows this development, since Lembi is there translated as СElves remaining behind = Telerin IlkorinsТ.)

In the note dated 3 February 1938 (p. 200) my father said that while Tintallл СKindlerТ could stand as a name of Varda, Tinwerontar СQueen of StarsТ must be changed to Elentбri, because Сtinwл in Qenya only = spark (tinta- to kindle).Т In the entry tin the names Tinwetar and Tinwerontar of Varda were struck from the original material, and in the margin was written: СTintaniл, Tintallл Kindler = Varda; Q tinta- to kindle, make to sparkТ. Original T-entries can therefore be dated before February 1938.

Under the stem men appears the form harmen СsouthТ, which was not subsequently changed, and again under the (additional) entry khar, but in this case the base-stem was afterwards changed to khyar and harmen to hyarmen. The insertion of y in this word was one of the alterations required in the note of 20 November 1937.

Putting these and a number of other similar evidences together, it seems to me clear that despite their very various appearance the Etymologies were not spread over a long period, but were contemporary with QS; and that some of the additions and corrections can be securely dated to the end of 1937 and the beginning of 1938, the time of the abandonment of QS and the beginning of The Lord of the Rings. How much longer my father kept the work in being with further additions and improvements is another question, but here also I think that an answer can be given sufficient for the purpose. This lies in the observations that there are relatively few names that belong specifically to The Lord of the Rings; that all of them are quite clearly additions to existing entries or introduce additional base-stems; that almost all were put in very hastily, mere memoranda, and not really accommodated to or explained in relation to the base-stems; and that the great majority come from the earlier part of The Lord of the RingsЦbefore the breaking of the fellowship. Thus we find, for example, Baranduin (barбn); the imperative daro! Сstop!Т (dar; this was the sentryТs command to the Company of the Ring on the borders of Lothlуrien); Hollin added under erйk; the scrawled addition of a base eter with the imperative edro! Сopen!Т (the word shouted by Gandalf before the doors of Moria); Celebrimbor (kwar); Caradras (ras; replacing in the original draft of the chapter The Ring Goes South the name Taragaer, itself found in the Etymologies under the added base tarбk); Celebrant (rat); Imladris (Ris). The words caras (kar) and naith (snas), both of them additions, probably argue the existence of Caras Galadon and the Naith of Lothlуrien, and the added rhandir СpilgrimТ under ran, taken with the added mith СgreyТ under mith, shows Mithrandir. Clear cases of names from later in The Lord of the Rings do occur (so Palantir under pal and tir, Dolbaran under barбn), but they are very few.

I conclude therefore that while my father did for two or three years more make rather desultory entries in the Etymologies as new names emerged in The Lord of the Rings, he gave up even this as the new work proceeded; and that the Etymologies as given here illustrate the development of the Quenya and Noldorin (later > Sindarin) lexicons at the decisive period reached in this book, and provide in fact a remarkable point of vantage.

The Etymologies, then, reflect the linguistic situation in Beleriand envisaged in the Lhammas (see especially the third version, Lammasethen, p. 194), with Noldorin fully preserved as the language of the Exiles, though profoundly changed from its Valinorian form and having complex interrelations in respect of names with СBeleriandicТ (Ilkorin), especially the speech of Doriath. Afterwards my father developed the conception of a kind of amalgamation between Noldorin and the indigenous speech of Beleriand, though ultimately there emerged the situation described in The Silmarillion (p. 129): the Noldor abandoned their own tongue and adopted that of the Elves of Beleriand (Sindarin). So far-reaching was this reformation that the pre-existent linguistic structures themselves were moved into new historical relations and given new names; but there is no need here to enter that rather baffling territory.

The presentation of such a text as this can obviously not be exact: in the most chaotic parts a degree of personal interpretation of what was meant is altogether inevitable. There is in any case a great deal of inconsistency in detail between the different parts of the manuscriptЦfor example, in the use of marks expressing length of vowel, which vary unceasingly between acute accent, macron (long mark), and circumflex. I have only СstandardizedТ the entries to a very limited extent, and only in so far as I have felt confident that I ran little risk of confusing the original intention. In particular, I have done nothing to bring divergent forms, as between one part of the Etymologies and another, into accord, seeing that the evolution of СbasesТ and derivative words is an essential part of the history; and indeed in the most complex parts of the manuscript (initial letters E, G, K) I have attempted to distinguish the different СlayersТ of accretion and alteration, though elsewhere I have been very selective in pointing out additions to the original list. I have СstandardizedТ the entries to the extent of giving the СbasesТ always in capitals, and of using the acute accent to signify long vowels in all СrecordedТ forms (as opposed to СhypotheticalТ antecedent forms), with the circumflex for long vowels in stressed final syllables in Exilic Noldorin and Ilkorin, as is largely done in the original. I use y for j of the original throughout (e.g. kuy, dyel for kuj, djel), since this is less misleading and was my fatherТs own practice elsewhere (found in fact here and there in the Etymologies); the stems with initial J, becoming Y, are moved forward from their original place before K to the end of the list. I print the back nasal (as in English king) with a Spanish tilde (с), again following my fatherТs frequent practice, though in the Etymologies he used special forms of the letter n. His grammatical abbreviations are retained, as follows:



genitive singular














past tense


quod vide, Сwhich seeТ






past participle







The sign Ж means Сpoetic or archaicТ. The abbreviations used for the different languages are as follows (there is no explanatory list of them accompanying the manuscript):








Exilic Noldorin (also referred to as СExilicТ, but most often simply as N)








Old Noldorin (i.e. the Korolambл or Komoldorin, see the Lhammas І5)


Ossiriandeb (the name in the Lhammnas, where however the form Ossiriandic is also found)


Primitive Quendian



An asterisk prefixed to a form means that it is СhypotheticalТ, deduced to have existed from later, recorded forms.

My own contributions are always enclosed within square brackets. A question mark standing within such brackets indicates doubt as to the correctness of my reading, but in other cases is original. Where I have found words totally illegible or can do no better than a guess (a very small proportion of the whole, in fact) I have usually omitted them silently, and so also with scattered jottings where no meaning is attached to forms, or where no clear connections are given. I have kept my own notes to a minimum, and in particular have very largely eschewed the temptation to discuss the etymologies in relation to earlier and later Elvish forms published elsewhere. On the other hand, while my father inserted many internal references to other stems, I have substantially increased the number (those due to me being enclosed within square brackets), since it is often difficult to find an element when it had been greatly changed from its ultimate СbaseТ. The Index to the book is further designed to assist in the tracing of name-elements that appear in the Etymologies.


AB-, ABAR- refuse, deny, *бbārō˘ refuser, one who does not go forth: Q Avar (or Avaro), pl. Avari = Elves who never left Middle-earth or began the march; N Afor, pl. Efuir, Efyr (ON abуro). Cf. awa.

[This entry as first written gave the root-meaning as Сgo away, departТ, translated *бbārō˘ as Сdeparter, one who goes forthТ, and defined Avari as СElves who left Middle-earthТ (see p. 381). An additional entry seems to allow for both developments from the root-meaning: Сab-retreat, move back, refuseТ.]

AD- entrance, gate, *adnō: Q ando gate; N annon, pl. ennyn great gate, Q andon (pl. andondi).

AIWĒ- (small) bird. Q aiwe, N aew. Cf. Aiwenor СBirdlandТ = lower air. [For Aiwenor(л) see the Ambarkanta and diagrams, IV. 236 etc.]

AK- narrow, confined. *akrā: Q arka narrow; N agr, agor. Cf. N Aglond, Aglon defile, pass between high walls, also as proper name; cf. lond, lonn path [lod]. Q aksa narrow path, ravine.

AKLA-R- See kal. Q alka ray of light; alkar or alkare radiance, brilliance; alkarinqa radiant, glorious. N aglar glory, aglareb glorious.

ЅLAK- rushing. *бlā rush, rushing flight, wild wind: N alag rushing, impetuous; alagos storm of wind. Cf. Anc-alagon dragon-name [nak]. Related to lak2.

*alk-wā swan: Q alqa; T alpa; ON alpha; N alf, Ilk. alch; Dan. ealc. Cf. Alqalonde Swan-road or Swan-haven, city of the Teleri [lod].

ЅLAM- elm-tree. Q alalme, also lalme; N lalf (lelf) or lalven, pl. lelvin; Ilk. lalm, pl. lelmin; Dan. alm. The stem is perhaps lбlam, q.v., but some hold it related to ala since the elm was held blessed and beloved by the Eldar. [The end of this entry, from Сbut some hold itТ, was an addition. Probably at the same time a stem al- was added, with derivatives alma Сgood fortuneТ, alya СrichТ, etc.; but this entry was struck out. The same derivative words are found under gala.]

ЅLAT- large, great in size. Q alta [...] alat- as in Alataire = Belegoer [ay].

AM1- mother. Q amil or amme mother, Ilk. aman, pl. emuin. (N uses a different word, naneth, hypocoristic [pet-name form] nana [nan]).

AM2- up: usually in form amba-. Q prefix am- up; amba adv. up(wards); amban upward slope, hill-side; ambapenda, ampenda uphill (adj.); see pen. N am up; am-bend, amben uphill; amon hill, pl. emuin, emyn; am-rыn uprising, sunrise, Orient = Q ambaron ( ambarуnen) or Ambarуne.

ANA1- Cf. na1. to, towards. *anta- to present, give: Q anta- give; anna gift; ante (f), anto (m.) giver. Cf. Yav-anna [yab]; Aryante [ar1]. N anno to give; ant gift. [Added:] Q anta face.

ANA2- Cf. na2 be, exist. [Added:] anwa real, actual, true.

ЅNAD-, ANDA- *andā long: Q anda; N and, ann. Cf. names Andram long-wall [rambĀ], Andfang, Anfang Longbeard, one of the tribes of Dwarves (pl. Enfeng) [spбnag].

ЅNAK- Cf. nak bite. Q anca jaw; N anc; cf. Ancalagon [alak].

ANЅR- sun; derivative of nar1 . *anār-: Q Anar sun; EN Anor.

ANGĀ- iron. Q anga; N ang. Q angaina of iron; N angren, pl. engrin.

ANGWA- or ANGU- snake. Q ango, pl. angwi, N am- in amlug dragon: see lok.

AP- apsa cooked food, meat. N aes; Ilk. ass.

AR1- day. *ari: Q are, pl. ari; N ar- only in names of week-days, as Arvanwe [see lep]. Cf. name Aryante Day-bringer [ana1], N Eriant. Q arin morning, arinya morning, early; arie daytime; бra dawn; Arien the Sun-maiden. N aur day, morning; arad daytime, a day (= Q arya twelve hours, day).

AR2- Q ara outside, beside; also prefix ar- as in Arvalin (= outside Valinor). In Q this is purely local in sense. So also in Ilkorin, cf. Argad place Сoutside the fenceТ, or Argador (in Falathrin dialect Ariad, Ariador) lands outside Doriath (in Ilkorin Eglador), especially applied to West Beleriand, where there was a considerable dwelling of Dark-elves. In N ar- developed a privative sense (as English without), probably by blending with *al, which is only preserved in Alchoron = Q Ilkorin [la]. Thus amediad without reckoning, = numberless [not]. In this sense Q uses ava-, as avanуte (see awa). Hence Q ar and.

ЅS-AT- Q asto dust; N ast.

ATA- father. PQ *atū, *atar. Q atar, pl. atari; hypocoristic atto. N. adar, pl. edeir, eder; ada. Cf. Ilъv-atar. Ilk. adar, pl. edrin; adda.

AT(AT)- again, back. Q ata again, ata-, at- back, again, re-; N ad. Cf. tat, atta = two; Q atta two, N tad. N prefix ath- on both sides, across, is probably related; athrad ford, crossing (see rat). Ilk. adu, ado double; cf. Adurant, a river in Ossiriand which for a distance has divided streams. [Ilk. adu, ado СdoubleТ and the explanation of Adurant was an addition; this shows the conception of the island of Tol-galen (see the commentary on QS І114). Other additions made at different times to this entry were Q atwa double, and N eden new, begun again.]

AWA- away, forth; out. Q ava outside; Avakъma [kum] Exterior Void beyond the World; au-, ava- privative prefixes = N ar (see ar2), as avanуte without number, numberless [not]. [Added:] Avalуna, cf. lуna [lono].

AY- *ai-lin- pool, lake: Q ailin ( ailinen); N oel, pl. oelin; cf. Oelinuial Pools of Twilight [lin1; yū, kal].

AYAR-, AIR- sea, only used of the inner seas of Middle-earth. Q ear (earen) and aire (airen); N oear, oer. Cf. Earrбme, a Q name = Wings of the Sea, name of TuorТs ship. Belegoer Сgreat seaТ, name of Western Ocean between Beleriand and Valinor, Q Alataire (see бlat).

AYAK- sharp, pointed. Q aika sharp, aikale a peak; N oeg sharp, pointed, piercing, oegas (=Q aikasse) mountain peak. Cf. N Oeges engrin Peaks of Iron, oeglir range of mountain peaks. ?Related is Q aiqa steep, cf. Ilk. taig deep (blended with tбra, see tā).

AYAN- See yan. *ayan- holy: Q Ainu, f. Aini, holy one, angelic spirit; aina holy; Ainulindale Music of the Ainur, Song of Creation.


[On the distinctive manuscript of the B-entries see p. 343. The following entries were added in pencil: bad, barбn, barat, barath, ben, and at the same time certain changes were made to existing entries. In this section I give the original entries as they were written, and note the alterations.]

BAD- *bad- judge. Cf. mbad. Not in Q. N bauр (bād-) judgement; badhor, baрron judge. [Pencilled addition.]

BAL- *bбlā: Q Vala Power, God (pl. Valar or Vali = PQ *bal-ī formed direct from stem, cf. Valinor); there is no special f. form, where necessary the cpd. Valatбri СVala-queenТ is used, f. of Valatar ( Valatбren) СVala-kingТ, applied only to the nine chief Valar: Manwe, Ulmo, Aule, Mandos, Lorien, Tulkas, Osse, Orome, and Melko. The Valatбri were Varda, Yavanna, Nienna, Vana, Vaire, Este, Nessa, Uinen. T Bala. ON Bala, and Balano m., Balane f.; EN Balan m. and f., pl. Belein, Belen. In Ilk. tуrin СkingsТ was used, or the cpd. Balthor, Balthorin (*balТtar-).

Q valya having (divine) authority or power, valaina of or belonging to the Valar, divine; valasse divinity. Q Valinor, for *bбlī-ndō˘re, reformed after the simplex nуre СlandТ, also in form Valinуre, land of the Gods in the West; ON Balandor (*bala-ndore), EN Balannor. Cf. also ON Balthil one of the names of the White Tree of Valinor, usually named in Q Silpion; EN Belthil, but this was usually applied to the image of the divine tree made in Gondolin, the tree itself being called Galathilion. Related is probably the name Balar of the large island at SirionТs mouth, where the Ilkorins long dwelt who refused to go West with Ulmo; from this is named Beleriand which they colonized from the island in the dark ages. Balar is probably from *bбlāre, and so called because here Ossл visited the waiting Teleri. [The explanation of Balar, Beleriand given here is not necessarily at variance with the story told in QS І 35 that the Isle of Balar was Сthe eastern horn of the Lonely Isle, that broke asunder and remained behind, when Ulmo removed that land again into the WestТ; but it can scarcely be brought into accord with the story (QS І36) that Сthe Teleri dwelt long by the shores of the western sea, awaiting UlmoТs returnТ, and that Ossл instnicted the waiting Teleri Сsitting upon a rock nigh to the margin of the sea.Т Moreover, the СcolonizationТ of Belenand from Balar seems to take no account of Thingol, and those of his people Сthat went not because they tarried searching for Thingol in the woodsТ: Сand these multiplied and were yet scattered far and wide between Eredlindon and the seaТ (Lhammas І6). More must be meant than simply that Elves from Balar removed to the mainland, for this СcolonizationТ from Balar is here made the very basis of the name Beleriand.]

BAN- *bбnā: Q Vana name of the Vala, wife of Orome, and sister of Varda and Yavanna; ON and T Bana; in ON also called Bana-wende, whence EN Banwend, Banwen (see wen). *bбnyā: Q vanya beautiful; EN bein. Cf. Q vanima fair; Vanimo, pl. Vanimor Сthe beautifulТ, children of the Valar; Џvanimo monster (creature of Melko); EN ъan (*ū΄banō) monster, uanui monstrous, hideous.

BAR- Original significance probably СraiseТ; cf. barбd, mbar. Hence uplift, save, rescue(?). *barnā΄: Q varna safe, protected, secure; [struck out: varne protection;] varnasse security. *baryā΄: Q varya- to protect; EN berio to protect. [The removal of varne СprotectionТ was due to the emergence of baran СbrownТ with the derivative Q varne СbrownТ.]

BARЅD- [Added: is blended with barath, q.v.] *barбdā lofty, sublime: [added: ON barada, EN baradh, steep;] Q Varda, chief of the Valatбri, spouse of Manwe; T Barada [>Baradis]. [Struck out: ON Bradil, EN Breрil (*bСradil-).] *bСrandā lofty, noble, fine: T branda; ON branda, EN brand, brann (whence brannon lord, brennil lady); cf. name Brandir (brand-dīr: see der).

BARЅN- Q varne (varni-) brown, swart, dark brown. ON barane, EN baran. Cf. river name Baranduin, Branduin. Dolbaran. [Pencilled addition. On Dolbaran (probably a further addition) see p. 345.]

BARЅS- Stem only found in Noldorin: *barasā΄ hot, burning: ON barasa, baraha; EN bara fiery, also eager, frequent in masculine names as Baragund, Barahir [kher], etc. *bСrбs-sē heat: ON brasse, white heat, EN brass: whence brassen white-hot.

BARAT- N barad tower, fortress. [Pencilled addition.]

BARATH- Probably related to bar and barбd. *Barathн spouse of Manwe, Queen of Stars: ON Barathi(l); EN Berethil and El-bereth. Q Varda, T Baradis show influence of barбdā lofty. [Pencilled addition. The application of the name Elbereth to Varda seems to have arisen in the hymn of the Elves to the Goddess in the original second chapter (Three is Company) of The Lord of the Rings, written early in 1938 (where in rough workings for the song the name appears as Elberil). Concomitant with this the Ilkorin names Elbereth (of different meaning) and Elboron were removed from the original entries ber and bor. These were the names of DiorТs sons in AB i and 2 (annal 206/306), replaced in AB 2 (note 42) by Eldыn and Elrыn (which were added also to Q І14); Elrыn appears in the Etymologies in addition to stem rō.]

BAT- tread. *bбtā˘: ON bata beaten track, pathway; EN bвd. *battā΄- (with medial consonant lengthened in frequentative formation): ON batthō΄ - trample, EN batho. ON tre-batie traverse, EN trevedi (pa.t. trevant) [see ter]. Cf. Q vanta- to walk, vanta a walk.

BEL- strong. Cf. bal (?). Stem not found in Q. T belle (physical) strength; belda strong. Ilk. bel (*belē) strength; Beleg the Strong, name of Ilkorin bowman of Doriath. *bйlek: *bйlekā: ON beleka mighty, huge, great; EN beleg great (n.b. this word is distinct in form from though related to Ilk. name Beleg); cf. EN Beleg-ol [gawa] = Q Aule; Belegaer Great Sea [ay], name of sea between Middle-earth and the West; Belegost Great City [os], name of one of the chief places of the Dwarves. T belka СexcessiveТ is possibly from ON; ON belda strong, belle strength (EN belt strong in body, bellas bodily strength) are possibly from T. Cf. name Belthronding of BelegТs yewbow: see star, ding.

BEN- corner (from inside), angle. N bennas angle [nas]. [Pencilled addition.]

BER- valiant. *bйrya-: Q verya- to dare; verya bold; verie boldness. ON berina bold, brave; bйrtha- to be bold; EN beren bold, bertho dare; cf. proper name Beren. Ilk. ber valiant man, warrior (*berō); bereth valor; [struck out: cf. Ilk. name El-bereth.] Danian beorn man; this is probably blended with *besnō: see bes. [On the removal of El-bereth see barath.]

BER…K- *berйkā: Q verka wild; EN bregol violent, sudden, cf. proper name Bregolas fierceness; breged violence, suddenness; breitho (*bТrekta-) break out suddenly. Cf. Dagor Vregedъr [ur] Battle of Sudden Fire (EN bregedur wild-fire). [See merйk.]

BER…TH- T bredele beech-tree; Ilk. breth (*bТrethā) beech-mast, but the beech was called galbreth [galad] in Falasse, and neldor in Doriath (see nel). The beech-tree was probably originally called *phйren, Q feren or ferne (pl. ferni), ON pheren: but in EN fкr pl. ferin was usually replaced by the Ilk. breth mast, whence EN brethil beech-tree; cf. Brethiliand, -ian СForest of BrethilТ [see pher].

BES- wed. *besnō husband: Q verno; ON benno, EN benn man, replacing in ordinary use the old word dоr (see der); hervenn, herven husband (see kher). Ilk. benn husband; Danian beorn man, blended with *ber(n)ō: see ber.

*bessē wife: Q vesse; ON besse, EN bess woman, replacing old words , dis (see nī1, ndis); herves wife (see kher). In the f. the shift of sense in ON was assisted probably by blending with *dess young woman, ON dissa.

*besū dual, husband and wife, married pair: Q veru. Cf. Q Arveruen third day (of the Valinorian week of 5 days) dedicated to Aule and Yavanna [lep].

*beslā: Q vesta matrimony; vesta- to wed; vestale wedding.

BEW- follow, serve. *beurō follower, vassal: ON biuro, bioro, EN bior, beor; cf. proper name Bлor. *beuyū- follow, serve: ON buiуbe to serve, follow, EN buio serve, hold allegiance to. T bъro vassal, bъa- serve. [On the name Bлor see the commentary on QS І128.]

BIRНT- Stem only found in Ilkorin. *bТrittē: Ilk. brith broken stones, gravel. Cf. river name Brithon (whence is named Brithombar) СpebblyТ. Late Exilic brith gravel is from Ilkorin.

BOR- endure. Q voro ever, continually; prefix vor, voro- as in vorogandele Сharping on one tuneТ, continual repetition; vorima continual, repeated. *bуron-: ON boron (pl. boroni) steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal; EN bуr and pl. bэr for older berein, beren; Ilk. boron, pl. burnin. Cf. N names given to the СFaithful MenТ: Bуr, Borthandos, Borlas, Boromir. Borthandos = Borth (see below) [but this element is not further mentioned] + handos (see khan). Borlas = Bуr + glass joy (see galбs). Boromir is an old N name of ancient origin also borne by Gnomes: ON Boronmнro, Boromнro: see mir. [Struck out: СCf. also Ilk. boron m Dor. name El-boronТ On the removal of El-boron see barath.]

BOR”N- extension of the above (originally a verbal form of the stem seen in *bуron- above). Q voronwa enduring, long-lasting; voronwie endurance, lasting quality; cf. name Voronwe = ON Bronwega, EN Bronwe [weg]. ON bronie last, endure, survive; EN bronio endure, brono last, survive; bronadui enduring, lasting. *bТrōnā: ON bruna that has long endured, old (only used of things, and implies that they are old, but not changed or worn out); EN brыn old, that has long endured, or been established, or in use.

Brodda Name of a man in Hithlum. He was not one of the Elf-friend races, and his name is therefore probably not EN or Ilkorin.

BUD- jut out. Cf. mbud.


[A very rough pencilled list was for most of its length overwritten in ink, and nearly all these entries appear in a second, pencilled list, the differences between the two being largely a matter of arrangement; see p. 380.]

DAB- give way, make room, permit, allow. Q lav- yield, allow, grant. N dвf permission.

DAL- flat (variant or alteration of lad). Q lбra СflatТ may derive from *dāla or *lāda. EN dalw flat; dalath flat surface, plane, plain [see tir]. ON dalma (probably = dal + hand) palm of hand; EN dalf. Ilk. dфl flat, lowlying vale.

DAN- Element found in names of the Green-elves, who called themselves Danas (Q Nanar, N Danath). Cf. Dan, Denethorand other names. See ndan?

DAR- stay, wait, stop, remain. N deri, imperative daro! stop, halt; dartha wait, stay, last, endure.

DARAK- *dТrāk: Q rбka wolf; EN draug; Dor. drфg.

DARЅM- beat, hew. EN dramb, dram(m) a heavy stroke, a blow (e.g. of axe); dravo to hew (pa.t. drammen, Жdramp); drafn hewn log; drambor clenched fist, hence blow with fist (see kwar); gondrafn, gondram hewn stone. [Cf. the name of TuorТs axe in the Lost Tales: Drambor, Dramborleg; see H. 337.]

DAT-, DANT- fall down. EN dad down, cf. dadben downhill (see pen); dath (*dattā) hole, pit, Q latta. Q lanta a fall, lanta- to fall; N dant- to fall, dannen fallen. Cf. Atalante Сthe FallenТ, and lasselanta Сleaf-fallТ, Autumn [see talбtj.

DAY- shadow. Q leo (*daio) shade, shadow cast by any object; laime shade; laira shady. EN dae shadow; cf. Daeрelos = Shadow of Fear. Dor., Ilk. dair shadow of trees; cf. names Dairon and Nan-dairon.

DEM- sad, gloomy. Ilk. dimb sad (cf. Dimbar); dim gloom, sadness (*dimbē); dem sad, gloomy (*dimbā).

DEN- hole; gap, passage. N dоn opening, gap, pass in mountains, as in Din-Caradras, Din-Dыhir, etc. [On the first list den was given the meaning Сhillside, slopeТ, whence Q nende slope, nenda sloping; N dend, denn, sloping, dadрenn downhill, amdenn uphill. This entry was struck through and the material transformed and transferred to pen (whence dadbenn, ambenn). Cf. am2 the A-entries belong to the second phase, later than the first form of the D-entries (see pp. 343-4).]

DER- Adult male, man (elf, mortal, or of other speaking race). Q nйr, pl. neri, with n partly due to nī, nis woman, partly to strengthened stem ndere bridegroom, ON daer [see nder]. ON dоr, EN Жdоr surviving chiefly in proper names (as Diriel older Dirghel [gyel], Haldir, Brandir) and as agental ending (as ceredir doer, maker). Owing to influence of dоr (and of strengthened ndisi bride) N goes the opposite way to Q and has woman (see ndis). In ordinary use EN has benn (properly = husband) [see bes].

DIL- stop up, fill up hole, etc. EN dоl stopper, stopping, stuffing, cf. gasdil stopgap [gas]; dilio to stop up. [The rather unlikely word gasdil is mentioned because it was the name of a sign used to indicate that g had disappeared; see p. 298, note on Gorgoroth.]

DING- Onomatopoeic, var. of ting, tang, q.v. Ilk. ding, dang, sound; cf. name Bel-thron(d)-ding [bel, star].

DO?, D‘- Q night, a night; lуme Night, night-time, shades of night. ON dogme, dougme, doume; EN daw night-time, gloom; (associated with ndū) nightfall, late evening - in EN night, dead of night is fuin; Dъ(w)ath night-shade; dыr dark, sombre; cf. Q lуna dark. Ilk. daum = N daw. Cf. N durion a Dark-elf = dureрel. Q lуmelinde nightingale; N dъlind, dъlin(n). Cf. Del-du-thling [dyel, slig].

DOMO- Possibly related to the preceding (and certainly in some derivatives blended with it); faint, dim. *dōmi- twilight in Q fell together with do?from do? in lуme night. Ilk. dыm twilight; Q tindуme starry twilight = Ilk. tindum = N tinnu (see tin).

D”RON- oak. Q norno; N doron (pl. deren); Dor., Ilk. dorn. Cf. Q lindornea adj. having many oak-trees [li].

DRING- Noldorin stem = beat, strike. EN dringo to beat. Cf. sword-name Glamdring. [In The Hobbit, Glamdring is rendered СFoe-hammerТ, called by the Orcs СBeaterТ]

DUB- lie, lie heavy, loom, hang over oppressively (of clouds). Q lumna lying heavy, burdensome, oppressive, ominous; lumna- to lie heavy. N dofn gloomy.

DUI- Ilk. duin water, river, cf. Esgalduin. Cf. duil river in Duilwen.

DUL- hide, conceal. N doelio, delio, and doltha conceal, pa.t. Жdaul, p.p. dolen hidden, secret. Cf. Gondolind, -inn, -in Сheart of hidden rockТ [see id]. Related is *ndulna secret: Q nulla, nulda; N doll (dolt) obscure. Cf. name Terendul. [See ndul, and for Terendul see ter.]

DUN- dark (of colour). Dor. dunn black; Dan. dunna; N donn swart, swarthy. Cf. Doriath place-name (Nan) Dungorthin = N Nan Dongoroth, or Nann Orothvor Vale of Black Horror [see —GOROTH].

DYEL- feel fear and disgust; abhor. EN delos, deloth (probably < del + gos, goth) abhorrence, detestation, loathing, cf. Dor-deloth Loathly Land; deleb horrible, abominable, loathsome; delw hateful, deadly, fell; cf. Daedhelos Shadow of Abomination, Deldъ(w)ath Deadly Nightshade, a name of Taur-na-Fuin, Delduthling, N name of Ungoliantл [day, do?]. Q yelma loathing, yelwa loathsome, yelta- to loathe.


[The entries under E are particularly confused and difficult. A small number of original and clear entries were mostly stuck through and the pages covered with faint pencilled notes often hard to interpret.]

EK-, EKTE- spear. Q ehte spear, ehtar spearman. N aith spear-point, кg thorn, cf. Egthelion, Ecthelion [steleg]. [This original entry was retained, with change of ekte to ekti, Q ehtar to ehtyar, and the following additions:] [N] ech spear, Q ekko. Cf. Eg-nor.

EL- star. Q poetical йl star (elen). Dor. el; N only in names, as Elwing. [This original entry received many changes:]

EL- star, starry sky. Q poetical elen (ellen or elena) star. Dor el; N only in names, as Elwing, Elbereth. Cf. Eled- Starfolk, that is Elves. Elrond = starry-dome, sky [rod]. [Added in margin:] Q Elerнna star-crowned = Taniquetil; Elentбri Star Queen = Varda; N Elbereth = Varda. [On Elbereth see note to barath; on Elerнna and Elentбri see p. 200.]

ELED- go, depait, leave. Q Elda СdepartedТ Elf; N eledh. Q lesta- to leave, pa.t. lende. [This original entry was replaced by the following, written as carefully and clearly as the first:] …LED- СStar-folkТ, Elf. Q Elda (Eldamar or Elende = Elvenhome, Eldalie, Eldarin); N Eledh, pl. Elidh, cf. Eledhrim, Eledhwen [Elf-fair >] Elf-maid, Elennor (Eledandore > Eleрndor). Dor. Eld, pl. Eldin. Dan. Elda. [The Dor. and Dan. forms were subsequently struck through and the following added:] In Dor. and Dan. transposed > edel- whence Dor. Egla, Eglath (cf. Eglamar, Eglorest); Dan. Edel.Eglador = Doriath in Doriathrin; Ariador = lands outside of Eglador. Cf. Eglor (Elf-river), Ilkorin name of a river in W. Beleriand. [On the earlier and later entries eled see p. 344. Further faint pencillings show my father doubtful of the derivation of Eldar from a base meaning СstarТ, and suggesting that, although the name was so interpreted, it was probably in fact altered from edela СeldestТ - eрel, eрil being found also in Noldorin. A base ede-, edel- Сprecede, come forwardТ is proposed, with derivative edela (= eleda) СfirstbornТ, but this is struck out.]

EN- element or prefix = over there, yonder. Q en there, look! yonder. Adj. enta that yonder. Entar, Entarda (Enta + harda [?ar]) Thither Lands, Middle-earth, Outer Lands, East.

…NED- centre. Q endya, enya middle; ende middle, centre. N enedh. [To this original entry was added:] Endamar Middle-earth. Endor centre of the world. [See nйd.]

…NEK- six. Q enqe; N eneg.

ERE- be alone, deprived. Q er one, alone; erya single, sole; eresse solitude; eressea lonely. N ereb isolated (*ereqa); eriol alone, single. Cf. Tol-eressea, Amon Ereb. Q erume desert, cf. Eruman desert N.E. of Valinor, N eru waste, desert.

ER…D- *eredē seed: Q erde seed, germ; N eredh; Ilk erdh.[See red.]

ER…K- thorn. Q erka prickle, spine; erka- to prick; erkasse holly. N ercho to prick; erch a prickle; ereg (and eregdos [tus]) holly-tree, pl. erнg. Cf. Taur-nan-Erig or Eregion = Dor. Forest of Region: Dor. regorn holly-tree (pl. regin, region) [see or-nн]. [Further addition:] Regornion = Hollin.

ES- indicate, name. Q esta to name, esse a name.

ESE-, ESET- precede. Q esta first; esse beginning; essea [?primary]; Estanesse the Firstborn. [Neither of these two entries were rejected, though they are certainly mutually exclusive, but the second was marked with a query.]

ESEK- Ilk. esg sedge, esgar reed-bed. Cf. Esgaroth Reedlake, because of reed-banks in west.

ET- forth, out. Q prefix et-, N ed-. Cf. ehtele under kel. [To this original entry was added:] etsiri: Q etsir mouth of a river, N ethir [sir]. ette outside; ettele outer lands; ettelen [?foreign].

ETER- Cf. et out. open (come out, of flowers, sun, etc.). edro! open!

EY- everlasting. Q aira eternal; aire eternity; ia (*eyā) ever. Cf. Iolosse ever-snow, N Uiloss (*Eigolosse). N uir eternity, uireb eternal. [This original entry was struck out, the material reappearing under gey. Iolosse was probably the form underlying the early emendation to Oiolosse in QS І13. Oiolosse arose with the further transformation of this base to oy, q.v.]

EZDĒ- СrestТ, name of the wife of Lуrien. Q Este; ON Ezde, Eide, Ide; N Idh. See sed.

EZGE- rustle, noise of leaves. Q eske; Ilk. esg; cf. Esgalduin.[This, which may be one of the original entries, was struck out. Cf. esek, and for Esgalduin see skal1.]


[The entries under G present much the same appearance as those under E: an initial layer of a few clear entries in ink, and a mass of changes and additions put in very roughly afterwards.]

GAL- shine; variant of kal.

GALA- thrive (prosper, be in health - be glad). Q Сal m the following forms which are not confused with ala- СnotТ: alya prosperous, rich, abundant, blessed; alma good fortune, weal, wealth; almie, almare blessedness, СblessingsТ, good fortune, bliss; almбrea blessed. Cf. name Almбriel. N galw; cf. names Galadhor, Galdor (later Gallor)Цthough these may contain gбlad. N galas growth, plant; galo- to grow. Possibly related are gбlad, galбs. [Almбriel is the name of a girl in Nъmenor in The Lost Road, p. 59.]

GALAD- tree. Q alda; N galadh. Cf. Galadloriel (Galagloriel), Galathilvion. [Galadlуriel and Galathilion (not as here Galathilvion) appear in very early emendations to QS І16. The form Galagloriel is found in an early draft for the chapter A Knife in the Dark in The Fellowship of the Ring.ЦThis, one of the original entries, was not struck out or altered (apart from Galathilvion > Galathilion), but a new entry for the stem was made:] GЅLAD- tree. Q alda; N galadh. Cf. names Galadhor, Galdor, etc. Q Aldaron name of Oromл. Aldalemnar, see lep. Dor. gald, cf. galbreth beech [berйth].

GALЅS- joy, be glad. N glas joy; cf. names as Borlas. Q alasse joy, merriment.

GAP- N gamp hook, claw; Q ampa hook.

GAR- hold, possess. N gar-. [An original entry, struck out; see ?ar.]

GAS- yawn, gape. *gassā: N gas hole, gap; gasdil (stopgap [dil]; Q assa hole, perforation, opening, mouth. [Cf. Ilmen-assa, the Chasm of Ilmen, IV. 240.ЦThis original entry was retained, but the following addition made:] *gāsa: ON gбsa = Q kъma; EN gaw, Belego the Void.

GAT- Q atsa catch, hook, claw; N gad-, gedi catch.

GAT(H)- N gath (*gattā) cavern; Doriath СLand of the CaveТ is Noldorin name for Dor. Eglador = Land of the Elves. The Ilkorins called [?themselves] Eglath = Eldar. Rest of Beleriand was called Ariador Сland outsideТ. N gadr, gador prison, dungeon; gathrod cave. Another name is Garthurian = Fenced Realm = N Ardholen (which was also applied to Gondolin). [Added to this later:] Dor. gad fence; argad Сoutside the fenceТ, the exterior, the outside. Cf. Argador, Falathrin Ariador. [See ar2, йled, ?ar, led.]

GAWA- or GOWO- think out, devise, contrive. Q auta invent, originate, devise; aule invention, also as proper name of the god Aule, also called Martan: N Gaul usually called Belegol (= great Aule) or Barthan: see tan, mbar. N gaud device, contrivance, machine.

GAY- Q aira red, copper-coloured, ruddy; N gaer, goer.

GЅYAS- fear. *gais-: Q aista to dread; ON gaia dread; N gae. *gaisrā: ON gЬѓsra, gērrha; N gaer dreadful.

GENG-WĀ- Q engwa sickly. N gemb, gem; cf. ingem Сyear-sickТ [yen], suffering from old age (new word coined after meeting with Men). N iaur ancient [ya], ifant Сyear-fullТ [yen, kwat] did not connote weakness. [Engwar Сthe SicklyТ is found in the list of Elvish names for Men in QS І83.]

GEY- everlasting. Q ia ever (*geiā); iale everlasting; нra eternal; нre eternal [?read СeternityТ]; Iolosse Everlasting Snow (*Geigolosse) = Taniquetil. N Guilos, Amon Uilos (guir eternity, guireb eternity [read СeternalТ]). N Guir is confounded with Gui = Q Vaiya (*wāyā) [way]. [This note, replacing the rejected entry ey, was in its turn struck out and replaced by oy.]

GIL- (cf. gal, kal; sil, thil; gul, kul) shine (white or pale). *gilya: N gоl star (pl. giliath). [This original entry was retained, with the addition to gоl: Сpl. geil, collective pl. giliathТ, and the following also added:] gael pale, glimmering; gilgalad starlight; Gilbrennil, Gilthoniel = Varda. Q Ilma starlight (cf. Ilmare), N [?Gilwen] or Gilith; Ilmen region above air where stars are. [On Ilma and Ilmen see the commentary on QS І4.]

GIR- quiver, shudder. N giri shudder; girith shuddering, horror.

GLAM- N form of lam, also influenced by сgal(am). N glamb, glamm shouting, confused noise; Glamhoth = Сthe barbaric hostТ, Orcs [khoth]. glambr, glamor echo; glamren echoing; cf. Eredlemrin = Dor. Lуminorthin. glavro to babble, glavrol babbling.

GLAW(-R)- Q laure gold (properly the light of the Tree Laurelin); N glaur gold. The element glaur reduced in polysyllables to glor, lor appears in many names, as Glorfindel, Glaurfindel, Galadloriel. [This original entry was struck out and replaced by:] GLAWAR- N alteration of lawar, q.v.

GLIN- sing. Q lin-; N glin-. Q linde song, air, tune; N glinn. Cf. Laurelin. [Original entry, struck out See lin2]

GLINDI- pale blue. N glind, glinn; Q ilin. [Original entry, struck out. Cf. the original meaning of Eredlindon, Blue Mountains, commentary on QS І108, and see lin2]

GLING- hang. Q linga; N gling. Cf. Glingal. [Original entry, struck out and replaced by:] GLING- N alteration of ling СhangТ, q.v.

GLIR- N form of lir1 sing. N glоr song, poem, lay; glin to sing, recite poem; glЬr long lay, narrative poem. Q laire poem, lirin I sing.

G”LOB- *golbā branch: Q olwa; N golf. Cf. Gurtholf [> Gurutholf] [сgur]. [For the form Gurtholf (earlier Gurtholfin) see p. 406.]

GOL”S- Q olosse snow, fallen snow; N gloss snow. Cf. Uilos.N gloss also adj. snow-white. [An original entry, this was retained with alteration of Q olosse to Жolos, Жolosse and the note: Сpoetical only: confused with losse flower, see los which is perhaps originally connected.Т The stem in question in fact appears as lot(h).]

GOND- stone. Q ondo stone (as a material); N gonn a great stone, or rock. [This original entry was retained, but the base was changed to gonod-, gondo-, and the following added:] Cf. Gondolin (see dul); Gondobar (old Gondambar), Gonnobar = Stone of the World = Gondolin. Another name of Gondolin Gondost [os], whence Gondothrim, Gondothrimbar.[Cf. Gondothlim, Gondothlimbar m the Lost Tales (II. 342).]

GOR- violence, impetus, haste. Q orme haste, violence, wrath; orna hasty. N gormh, gorf impetus, vigour; gorn impetuous. [Apart from the removal of the form gormh this original entry was retained, with these additions:] Cf. Celegorn [kyelek]; and cf. Huor, Tuor: Khōgore [khō-n], Tūgore [tug].

GOS-, GOTH- dread. Q osse terror, as name Osse. Cf. Mandos (see mbad). N has Oeros for Osse (*Goss). Cf. Taur-os [tбwar]. N gost dread, terror; gosta- fear exceedingly; cf. Gothrog = Dread Demon [ruk]; Gothmog [mbaw]. Gostir Сdread glanceТ, dragon-name [thē].

GŪ- Prefix gū- no, not, as in Q u- not (with evil connotation); Џvanimor [ban].

GUL- glow, shine gold or red (cf. gil); also yul- smoulder [yul]. N goll red (*guldā). [This original entry was struck out. See kul.]

GWEN- (distinguish wen(ed)). Q wenya green, yellow-green, fresh; wēn greenness, youth, freshness (blended with wende maid). N bein fair, blended with ban. Ilk. gwкn greenness; gwene green; cf. Duilwen [dui].

GYEL- [< GEL-] Q yello [< ello] call, shout of triumph. N gell joy, triumph; gellui triumphant; gellam jubilation. Cf. Diriel [der]. Gelion merry singer, surname of Tinfang. [Tinfang Gelion occurs in the Lay of Leithian: III. 174, 181-2.] Gelion shorter name of a great river in E. Beleriand; a Gnome interpretation (this would have been *Dilion in Ilkorin); cf. Ilk. gelion = bright, root gal. [This rather perplexing note seems certain in its reading.]

GYER- *gyernā old, worn, decrepit (of things): Q yerna old, worn; yerya to wear (out), get old. N gern worn, old (of things).


[The few entries under the initial back spirant ? were struck out and replaced more legibly.]

?AN- male. Q hanu a male (of Men or Elves), male animal; ON anu, N anw; Dor. ganu. (The feminine is ini.)

?AR- Stems ?ar have, hold, and related gar, garat, garad were much blended in Eldarin. From ?ar come: Q harya- possess; harma treasure, a treasured thing; harwe treasure, treasury; haryon (heir), prince; haran (pl. harni) king, chieftain (see tā). N ardh realm (but Q arda < gar); aran king (pl. erain). Dor. garth realm, Garthurian (Fenced Realm = Doriath), garon lord, may come from ?ar or gar.

From gar: Q arda realm - often in names as Elenarda СStar-kingdomТ, upper sky; armar pl. goods; aryon heir, arwa adj. (with genitive) in control of, possessing, etc., and as semi-suffix -arwa, as aldarwa, having trees, tree-grown. N garo- (gerin) I hold, have; gam СownТ, property.

GARAT- Q arta fort, fortress. N garth: cf. Garth(th)oren СFenced FortТ = Gondolin - distinguish Ardh-thoren = Garthurian. [This note is the final form of two earlier versions, in which the Qenya words are all derived from ?ar. In one of these versions it is said that N Arthurien is a Noldorinized form of Garthurian, Arthoren a translation; in the other that N Arthurмen is Сa half-translation = N Arthoren; see thur.]

?ARAM- Dor. garm wolf; N araf. [Struck out. Another version gave also Q harma, Dan. garma.]

?EL- sky. Q helle, ON elle, sky. In Noldorin and Telerin this is confused with el star. Other derivatives: Q helwa, ON elwa (pale) blue, N elw, cf. name of Elwe King of the Teleri [weg]; and names as Elulind, Elwing, Elrond. Q helyanwe Сsky-bridgeТ, rainbow, ON elyadme, N eilian(w) [yat]. Dor. gell sky, gelu sky-blue. [A later note directs that Elwe be transferred to el star. Elrond, Elwing are also given under el.]

?O- from, away, from among, out of. This element is found in the old partitive in Q -on (?ō + plural m). Q ho from; Ilk. go; N o from. In Ilk. go was used for patronymics, as go-Thingol.


[The single page of entries under I consists only of very rough notes.]

I- that (deictic particle) in Q is indeclinable article СtheТ. N i- ТtheТ, plural in or i-.

I- intensive prefix where i is base vowel. ithil- Moon (thil, sil): Q Isil; N Ithil; Dor. Istil. indis- = ndis bride; Indis name of the goddess Nessa (see ndis, nī). [Ithil occurs in The Lost Road (p. 41) as the СBeleriandicТ name of the Moon - i.e. the name in a language (Noldorin) perceived by Alboin Errol to be spoken in Beleriand.]

ID- *īdī: heart, desire, wish. Q нre desire; нrima lovely, desirable. Q indo heart, mood; cf. Indlour, Inglor (Indo-klār or Indo-glaurē). N inn, ind inner thought, meaning, heart; idhren pondering, wise, thoughtful; idher (*idrē) thoughtfulness. Cf. Idhril; Tъrin(n) [tur], Hъrin(n) [khor]. [The Q word нrima occurs in the song in The Lost Road (p. 72): Toi нrimar, Ќrima ye Nъmenor; cf. also Ќrimor СFair OnesТ, name of the Lindar in the Genealogies. p. 403. - For the original etymology of Idril, Idhril see II.343.]

IL- all. Q ilya all, the whole. ILU- universe: Q ilu, ilъve: cf. Ilъvatar, Ilurambar Walls of the World. Ilumнre = Silmaril. ilqa everything.

ING- first, foremost. inga first. Element in Elfin and especially Lindarin names. Cf. Ingwe prince of Elves. QL [i.e. Qenya-Lindarin] form is always used (Ingwe): not ngw > mb [i.e. in Noldorin] because the L form persisted and also the composition was felt ing + wege [weg]. Cf. Ingil. [Elfin at this date is a strange reversion to old usage.]

INI- female. See NĪ: Qenya female, woman. Q hanwa male, inya female; hanuvoite, inimeite. N inw after anw [see ?an].

INK-, INIK-? Q intya- guess, suppose; intya guess, supposition, idea; intyale imagination. N inc guess, idea, notion.

IS- Q ista- know (pa.t. sinte); ista knowledge; istima having knowledge, wise, learned, Istimor = Gnomes [cf. p. 403]. Q istya knowledge; istyar scholar, learned man. N ist lore, knowledge; istui learned; isto to have knowledge. Cf. Isfin (= Istfin) [phin].


[The numerous entries under K are perhaps the most difficult in the work. A first layer of etymologies written carefully and clearly in ink was overlaid by a mass of rapid notes in pencil that are now in places almost invisible.]

KAB- hollow. Q kambe hollow (of hand); N camb, cam hand, cf. Camlost СEmptyhandТ [lus] (= Dor. Mablost).Erchamui СOne-handedТ. [An earlier version of this entry gives also Cambant Сfull handТ; see kwat.]

KAL- shine (general word). Variant forms akla-, kalar-, aklar-. Q kala light; kalma a light, lamp; kalya illuminate; kalina light (adj.). In N the variant gal appears: gail (*galya) bright light, glaw radiance (*gТlā), cf. Q kala < (*kТlā). But in longer forms kal also in N, as aglar, aglareb, see akla-r. Also celeir brilliant (*kalaryā); Q kallo noble man, hero (*kalrō), N callon (*kalrondō) hero; N poetical claur splendour, glory Ц often in names in form Цglor.gфl light (*gālę-) in Thingol.[Parts of this original entry were rejected: the etymology of Thingol (see thin), and the idea that gal was a Noldorin variant of kal. It is not clear at this stage how these bases were related. The entry was covered with a maze of new forms, often rejected as soon as written. The following can be discerned:] N calad light (cf. Gilgalad); calen bright-coloured = green. Q kalta- shine; Kalakilya; Kalaqendi, N Kalamor; Kalamando = Manwe [see mbad]. Ankale Сradiant oneТ, Sun. yъkale, yuale twilight, N uial [yū].

KALPA- water-vessel. Q kalpa; N calf. Q kalpa- draw water, scoop out, bale out. [Added entry.]

KAN- dare. Q kбne valour; N caun, -gon (cf. Turgon, Fingon). Q kanya bold. N cann (*kandā). Eldakan (name) = ∆lfnoю. [Added entry.]

KЅNAT- four. Q kanta-, kan-; N canad. [Added entry.]

KAP- leap. [Added:] N cabr, cabor frog.

KAR- make, do. Q kar (kard-) deed; N carр, carth deed, feat. Cf. kyar cause. Q karo doer, actor, agent; ohtakaro warrior. [This stem was very roughly rewritten thus:] KAR- make, build, construct. Q kar (kard-) building, house; N car house, also carр. Q karin, karne, I make, build. Cf. KYAR- cause, do. Q tyaro doer, actor, agent; ohtatyaro warrior. N caras a city (built above ground).

KARAK- sharp fang, spike, tooth. Q karakse jagged hedge of spikes; cf. Helkarakse, N elcharaes [khel]. [This entry was retained, with karak > kбrak and elcharaes > helcharaes, and the following faintly visible additions made:] Q karka tooth, karkane row of teeth. N carag spike, tooth of rock; carch tooth, fang (Carcharoth).

KARЅN- red. Q karne (*karani) red; N caran. *kТrannā: N crann ruddy (of face), cf. Cranthir [thē], [?as noun] like Old English rudu, face, blush, the cheeks. [Added entry.]

KARKA- crow. Q karko; N carach. [This stem was changed thus:] KORKA- crow. Q korko; N corch.

KAS- head. Q kбr (kas-); N caw top. [Added:] *kas-sa, *kas-ma:Q cassa helmet.

KAT- shape. Q kanta shaped, and as quasi-suffix, as in lasse-kanta leaf-shaped; kanta- to shape; N cant. [The meaning СoutlineТ was attributed to cant, and the following added:] *katwā: ON katwe shaped, formed, N cadw, -gadu. *katwārā shapely: N cadwor, cadwar. N echedi, pa.t. echant (*et-kat) fashion. [Cf. Im Narvi hain echant above the Doors of Moria]

KAY- lie down. Q kaima bed. N caew lair, resting-place; cael (Q kaila) lying in bed, sickness; caeleb bedridden, sick: cf. Q kaimasse, kaimassea.

KAYAN-, KAYAR- ten. Q kainen; N caer. [Added entry.]

KEL- go, run (especially of water). *et-kelē spring, issue of water: Q ehtele, N eithel (from metathesized [i.e. with transposed consonants] form *ektelй). Q kelume stream, flow; N celon river; Q kelma channel. Cf. kyel run out, come to an end; kwel fade away. [These changes were made: СN celon riverТ > СIlk. celon river, and as proper name, kelu+nТ; СN celw spring, sourceТ added.]

KEM- soil, earth. Q kйn (kemen). N coe earth (indeclinable), cef soil, pl. ceif. Q kemina of earth, earthen; [N] cevn. Q kemnaro potter. [Added entry.]

KEPER- knob, head, top [changed to СridgeТ. This entry consists of disconnected jottings, all struck out, but concerned with N ceber pl. cebir and Sern Gebir, of which the meaning seems to be Сlone stonesТ.]

KHAG- *khagda pile, mound; Q hahta; N hauр mound, grave, tomb (cf. Hauр iNdengin). [Added entry.]

KHAL1- (small) fish. Q hala; cf. Q halatir СfishwatcherТ, kingfisher, N heledir. [Added entry. The same origin of halatir is found under tir; but here khal was changed to khol and the -a- of the Q forms to -o-, before the entry was struck out with a reference to base skal Ц which (a later addition to the S-stems) is clearly the later formulation.]

KHAL2- uplift. ON khalla noble, exalted (*khalnāі); orkhalla superior. N hall exalted, high; orchel [e uncertain] superior, lofty, eminent. [Added entry.]

KHAM- sit. Q ham- sit. [The other derivatives are too chaotic and unclear to present.]

KHAN- understand, comprehend. Q hanya understand, know about, be skilled in dealing with; hande knowledge, understanding; handa understanding, intelligent; handele intellect; handasse intelligence. EN henio understand; hann, hand intelligent; hannas understanding, intelligence. Cf. Handir, Borthandos. [Added entry.]

KHAP- enfold. N hab- clothe; hamp garment; hamnia- clothe; hammad clothing.

KHARЅS- (cf. karak). *khrassē: precipice: N rhass (i-rass, older i-chrass); Dan. hrassa. Cf. Gochressiel [< Gochrass] a sheer mountain-wall. [Added entry. For Gochressiel see QS І147 and commentary.]

KHAT- hurl. N hedi, pa.t. hennin, hant; hador or hadron thrower (of spears or darts), cf. Hador, hadlath, haglath a sling (see lath). [Added entry.]

KHAW- (= kay, q.v.) N haust bed. [This original entry was enlarged thus:] KHAW- rest, lie at ease (= kay, q.v.) N haust bed (*khau-stā, literally Сrest-ingТ). In N associated with hauр mound (see khag). Cf. Q hauta- cease, take a rest, stop.

KHAYA- far, distant. Q haira adj. remote, far, [?also] ekkaira, avahaira. hāya adv. far off, far away. [Added entry.]

KHEL- freeze. Q helle frost; N hell. KHELEK- ice. N heleg ice, helch bitter cold; Q helke ice, helk ice-cold. [The base khel and derivarives were struck out, but khelek and derivatives retained.]

KHEN-D-E- eye. Q hen (hendi); N hent, pl. hinn > hent, hint, or henn, hinn. [N forms changed to hкn, hоn.]

KHER- rule, govern, possess. Q heru master, heri lady; hйra chief, principal. ON khйro master. khнril lady; N hоr, hiril. N herth household, troop under a hоr, cf. Bara-chir [barбs]. Cf. N hervenn husband, hervess wife [bes]. Q heren fortune (= governance), and so what is in store for one and what one has in store; herenya fortunate, wealthy, blessed, rich; cf. Herendil = Eadwine. [Added entry. СHerendil = EadwineТ derives from The Lost Road: Herendil is Audoin/Eadwine/Edwin in Nъmenor, son of Elendil. On the meaning of Old English йad see ibid. p. 50, and cf. IV. 212.]

KHIL- follow. Q hilya- to follow; hildi followers = mortal men (cf. Hildуrien), also -hildi as suffix. In N fоr was used [phir]. Cf. Tarkil (*tāra-khil). [Added entry. Cf. Rуmenildi in QS І151.]

KHIM- stick, cleave, adhere. Q himya- to stick to, cleave to, abide by; himba adhering, sticking. N him steadfast, abiding, and as adv. continually. Cf. N hоw sticky, viscous (*khīmā); hЬw custom, habit (*khaimē) = Q haime habit. [Added entry.]

KHIS-, KHITH- mist, fog. *khīthi: Q hнse; N hith, cf. Hithlum [lum]. *khithme: Q hiswe; N hithw fog. *khithwa; Q hiswa grey; N hethw foggy, obscure, vague; Dor. heрu. Cf. Hith-liniath or Eilinuial = Dor. Umboth Muilin. [Added entry. For Hithliniath Сpools of mistТ (lin1) see QS І111.]

KHŌ-N- heart (physical). Q hōn; N hыn.Cf. Hundor. Khō-gorē, Q Huore, N Huor Сheart-vigourТ, courage [gor]. [Added entry.]

KHOP- Q hуpa haven, harbour, small landlocked bay; hopasse harbourage. N hыb; hobas, cf. Alfobas or hobas in Elf = Alqalonde capital of the Teleri. [Added entry; see kop.]

KHOR- set going, put in motion, urge on, etc. Q horta- send flying, speed, urge, hortale speeding, urging; horme urgency (confused with orme rushing [gor]); hуre impulse, hуrea impulsion. N hыr readiness for action, vigour, fiery spirit; hortha- urge on, speed; horn driven under compulsion, impelled; hoeno, heno begin suddenly and vigorously. Cf. Hъr-ind, Hъrin [id]. [Added entry.]

KHOTH- gather. *khotsē assembly: N hoth host, crowd, frequent in people Ц names as Glamhoth. Cf. host gross (144). Q hosta large number, hosta- to collect. N hыd assembly.

KHUGAN- Q huan (hъnen) hound; N huan. [This entry was changed to read thus:] KHUG- bark, bay. *khugan: Q huan (hъnen) hound; N Huan (dog-name); Q huo dog; N .

KHYAR- left hand. Q hyarmen south, hyarmenya southern; hyarya left, hyarmaite lefthanded [ma?]. N heir left (hand), hargam lefthanded [kab]; harad south, haradren, harn southern. [Added entry. The -y- in the base-stem was a further addition, and at the same time the Q forms were changed from har- to hyar-; see p. 382.]

KHYEL(ES)- glass. Q hyelle (*khyelesē); ON khelesa, khelelia; N hele, cf. Helevorn Сblack-glassТ [mor], lake-name. Cf. khelek. [Added entry. Helevorn is written over an erasure in QS І118.]

KIL- divide (also skil). Q kilya cleft, pass between hills, gorge. [The base skil is not found in the Etymologies. To this entry was added:] N cоl. Cf. Kalakilya СPass of LightТ, in which Kфr was built. N Cilgalad; Cilthoron or Cilthorondor.

KIR- Q kirya ship; N ceir. [Added:] cirdan shipbuilder [tan].

KIRIK- Q kirka sickle; N cerch. Q Valakirka, N Cerch iMbe-lain [bal], Sickle of the Gods = Great Bear. N critho reap (*kТriktā).

KIRIS- cut. Q kirisse slash, gash; N criss cleft, cut. [Added:] CristhoronЦ of thфr eagle. N crist a cleaver, sword. Cf. ris.

KOP- Q kуpa harbour, bay. [This entry was struck out; see khop.]

KOR- round. *kornā: Q korna round, globed; koron (kornen).globe, ball; koromindo cupola, dome. Kфr round hill upon which Tъna (Tыn) was built. N corn, coron, Cфr (koro).[Cфr > Caur, and the following added:] [Q] korin circular enclosure [cf. I. 257]; N cerin. N rhin-gorn circle [rin]. Cf. Ilk. basgorn [sc.bast-gorn Сround breadТ, loaf: mbas].

KOT- strive, quarrel. *okta strife: Q ohta war. N auth war, battle; cost quarrel (kot-t), Q kosta- quarrel. [The base was changed to KOTH, and the following added:] Q kotumo enemy, kotya hostile. [N] coth enmity, enemy; cf. Morgoth Ц but this may also contain goth. [See oktā.]

KRAB- press. N cramb, cram cake of compressed flour or meal (often containing honey and milk) used on long journey. [Added entry.]

KŪ- *kukūwā dove; Q ku, kua, ON ku, kua, (= kūua); N cugu.[Added entry. The base-stem is not given but is taken from a later etymological note.]

KUB- Q kumbe mound, heap; N cumb, cum. [Added entry.]

KU?- bow. > kuw: Q bow; N arch, crescent; cъran the crescent moon, see ran. [Added:] *ku?: N cыn bowed, bow-shaped, bent; but Ilk. *kogna >coun, caun, Dan. cogn.

KUL- gold (metal). Q kulu, N cфl; Q kuluinn of gold. KULU-gold (substance). Q kulo. [This entry was struck out and the following roughly substituted:] KUL- golden-red. Q Жkullo red gold; kulda, kulina flame-coloured, golden-red; kuluina orange; kuluma an orange; N coll red (*kuldā).

KUM- void. Q kъma the Void; kumna empty; N cыn empty. [The Q forms were retained, but the Noldorin altered to read:] ON kъma, N cofn, caun empty, void, but in EN [the Void was] called Gast, Belegast [cf. gas].

KUNDŪ- prince. Q kundu; N cunn, especially in names as Felagund, Baragund. [Added entry.]

KUR- craft. Q kurwe craft. N curw, curu; curunir wizard; cf. Cunifin [phin]. Cf. N crum wile, guile; corw cunning, wily. [Added entry. N crum was rejected; see kurъm.]

KURЏM- N crum the left hand; crom left; crumui left-handed (*krumbē,). [Added entry. Cf. khyar.]

KUY- come to life, awake. Q kuile life, being alive; kuina alive; kuive (noun) awkening; kuivea (adj.) wakening; kuivie = kuive, cf. Kuiviйnen, N cuil life; cuin alive; echui(w) awakening (*et-kuiwē), hence Nen-Echui = Q Kuiviйnen. [The following additions were made:] N cuino to be alive; Dor Firn i guinar Land of the Dead that Live.

KWAL- die in pain. Q qalme agony, death; qalin dead; unqale agony, death. [Added entry. See wan.]

KWAM- Q qбme sickness; N paw, Ilk. cфm. [Added entry.]

KWAR- clutching hand, fist. Q qбr hand (qari); N paur fist. [This stem was not struck out, but a second form of it was put in elsewhere in the list:] KWAR- Q qбre fist; ON pуre; N paur, -bor, cf. Celebrimbor Silver-fist.

KWAT- Q qanta full; ON panta; N pant full, cf. Cambant [kab] ; pathred fullness; pannod or pathro fill. [Added entry.]

KWEL- fade, wither. Cf. Narqelion fire-fading, autumn, N lhasbelin [las1]. *kwelett- corpse: Q qelet, qeletsi.

KWEN(ED). Elf. *kwenedē: Q qende Elf; N penedh, pl. penidh; Dan. cwenda. Q Qendelie, N Penedhrim. The word Eledh is usually employed. [Added entry.]

KWES- *kwessē: Q qesse feather; Ilk. cwess down; N pesseg pillow (Q qesset). [Added entry.]

KWET- (and PET-) say. *kwetta: N peth word. *kwentā tale: N pent, Q qenta; N pennas history. *kwentro narrator: Q qentaro; N pethron; Dor. cwindor. [Added:] Q qetil tongue, language; qentale account, history; lъmeqentale history [lu]. N gobennas history, gobennathren historical. Q avaqet- refuse, forbid [awa]. [For go- prefix see wo.]

KWIG- Cf. ku?. *kwingā: Q qinga bow (for shooting); N peng.[Added entry.]

KYAB- taste. Q tyavin I taste.

KYAR- cause (cf. kar). Q tyar- cause.

KYEL- come to an end. Q tyel- end, cease; tyel (tyelde) end; tyelima final. Cf. teles. (Added entry.]

KYELEK- swift, agile. Q tyelka; N celeg, cf. Celegorn [gor].

KYELEP- and TELEP- silver. N celeb silver; Q telpe and tyelpe silver; telepsa of silver = telpina, N celebren. Cf. Irilde Taltelepsa = Idhril Gelebrendal.[celebren, Gelebrendal early changed from celebrin, Celebrindal. The entry was rewritten thus:] KYELEP- (and TELEP?) silver. ON kelpe, N celeb, silver; Q telpe and tyelpe silver; telemna, N celefh, celevon = telpina, N celebren. Cf. Irilde Taltelemna = Idhril Gelebrendal. T telpe; Ilk. telf Q telpe may be Telerin form (Teleri specially fond of silver, as Lindar of gold), in which case all forms may refer to kyelep. [For Idril (Idhril) see id, and cf. Irilde Taltelepta in the Lost Tales, II. 216.]


[The L-stems consist of lightly pencilled entries, in themselves hard to read, but not much changed subsequently.]

LA- no, not. Q and lala, also lau, laume (=lб ume [ugu]), no, no indeed not, on the contrary; also used for asking incredulous questions. As prefix la- > [vocalic] l > Q il, N al, as in Ilkorin, N Alchoron, pl. Elcheryn. Q lala- to deny. [See ar2.]

LAB- lick. Q lamba tongue, N lham(b). Q lavin I lick, also lapsa to lick (frequentative). N lhefi (lhвf).

LAD- Cf. dal, lat. Q landa wide, N lhand, lhann. N. camland palm of hand. Cf. Lhothland, Lhothlann (empty and wide), name of a region [lus].

LAG- Q lango broad sword; also prow of a ship. N lhang cutlass, sword.

LAIK- keen, sharp, acute. Q laike, N lhaeg. Q laike acuteness, keenness of perception. Ilk. laig keen, sharp, fresh, lively (blended with laikwa [see lбyak]).

LAK1- swallow; cf. lank. Q lanko throat.

LAK2-swift (cf. бlak). *lakra: Q larka swift, rapid, also alarka; N lhagr, lhegin.

LЅLAM- elm-tree. Q alalme; N lhatwen (lelwin), lhalom: D lalm. [See бlamy.]

LAM- Q lamya to sound; lбma ringing sound, echo; lamma a sound; lбmina echoing; nallā˘ma echo. Dor. lуm echo, lуmen echoing. Thus Dor. Lуmendor, Lуminorthin, Noldorinized > Dorlуmen, Ered Lуmin; pure N Eredlemrin, Dorlamren. See glam.

LAN- weave. Q lanya weave; lanwa loom; lanat weft; lanne tissue, cloth.

LANK- Q lanko throat; N lhanc. [This stem was first written lang, with derivatives Q lango (*langwi), N lhang- see lak1.]

LAP- Q lapse babe; N lhaes.

LAS1- *lassē leaf: Q lasse, N lhass; Q lasselanta leaf-fall, autumn, N lhasbelin (*lassekwelēne), cf. Q Narqelion [kwel]. Lhasgalen Greenleaf, Gnome name of Laurelin. (Some think this is related to the next and *lassē СearТ. The Quendian ears were more pointed and leaf-shaped than [?human].)

LAS2- listen. N lhaw ears (of one person), old dual *lasū Ц whence singular lhewig. Q lбr, lasta- listen; lasta listening, hearing Ц Lastalaika Сsharp-earsТ, a name, cf. N Lhathleg. N lhathron hearer, listener, eavesdropper (< *la(n)sro-ndo); lhathro or lhathrado listen in, eavesdrop.

LAT- lie open. Q latin(a) open, free, cleared (of land); cf. Tum-bolatsin. Cf. Tumladen plain of Gondolin. N lhaden, pl. lhedin open, cleared; lhand open space, level; lhant clearing in forest. [Cf. lad.]

LATH- string, thong. Q latta strap; N lhath thong of [?leather]; cf. hadlath, haglath sling (khat).

LAW- warm, *lauka warm: Q lauka, N lhaug.

LЅWAR-, N GLЅWAR- *laurē (light of the golden Tree Laurelin) gold Ц the metal was properly smalta, see smal; Q laure, N glaur, Dor. Oss. laur. Hence N glor-.lor- in names, as Glorfindel [spin], Inglor [id]. Cf. Laurelin, N Galad-loriel; Rathlo-riel [rat]. N glawar sunlight, radiance of Laurelin; ЖGlewellin.[See glaw(-r). Cf. QS І16: СGlewellin (which is the same as Laurelin song of gold)Т.]

LЅYAK- *laik-wā; Q laiqa green; N lhoeb fresh ЦТgreenТ only in Q Laiqendi Green-elves, N Lhoebenidh or Lhoebelidh. Ilk. laig is blended with laika [laik].

LEB-, LEM- stay, stick, adhere, remain, tarry. Q lemba (*lebnā) left behind, pl. Lembi Elves remaining behind = Telerin Ilkorins; N lhevon, lhifnir. [See p. 381.]

LED- go, fare, travel. Cf. Q lende went, departed (linna go). ON lende fared; etledie go abroad, go into exile; N egledhi or eglehio go into exile, egledhron exile (ON etledro), eglenn exiled (ON etlenna). In N egledhron was often taken as the meaning of Ilk. Eglath = Eldar = Ilkorins [see йled, gat(h)].

LEK- loose, let loose, release. N lhein, lhain free(d); lheitho to release, set free; lheithian release, freeing. Q leuka, lehta loose, slacken. Ilk. legol nimble, active, running free; cf. Legolin, a river-name. [A note on a slip accompanying these etymologies gives: СLeth- set free (cf. led); EN leithia to release, leithian release; cf. Lay of Leithian.Т I have referred to this note in III. 154, at which time I overlooked the present entry.]

LEP-, LEPET finger. Q lepse; N lhebed.

Cf. LEP- (LEPEN, LEPEK) five. Q lempe; N lheben. Q lemnar week. The Valian week had five days, dedicated (1) to Manwe: (Ar)Manwen; (2) to Ulmo: (Ar)Ulmon; (3) to Aule and Yavanna: (Ar)Veruen, i.e. of the Spouses [bes]; (4) to Mandos and Lorien: (Ar)Fanturion [span]; (5) to the three younger Gods, Osse, Orome, Tulkas, called Nessaron or Neldion [neth, nel]. The 73 weeks were divided into 12 months of 6 weeks. In the middle of the Year there was a separate week, Midyear week or week of the Trees, Endien [yen] or Aldalemnar, N Enedhim, Galadlevnar.

N names: Ar Vanwe; Ar Uiar (Ulmo) [way]; Ar Vedhwen (Bedū + ina), or Ar Velegol (Aule [see gawa]); Ar Fennuir; Ar Nethwelein = of the young Gods, or Ar Neleduir of the three kings.

[The dual form Сhusband and wifeТ is given as besū in the entry bes СwedТ, not as here bedū; similarly under kher, ndis and nī reference is made in the original to bed, not bes. There is however no suggestion of any alteration in the entry bes itself.ЦFor the element Ar see ar1 . In the Quenya names of the days Ae is written above Ar, but Ar is not struck out.ЦFor the Сyoung GodsТ see pp. 132-3.]

LI- many. Q lie people; -li pl. suffix, lin- prefix = many, as lin-tyulussea having many poplars [tyul], lindomea having many oaks [dуron]. In N the ending -lin СmanyТ has been blended with rhim > lim, rim.

LIB1- drip. Q limba a drop; cf. helkelimbe [khelek].

LIB2- *laibē: Q laive ointment. N shows glib-: glaew salve. *libda: Q lipsa; N [lhър>] glър soap.

LILT- dance. Q lilta- dance.

LIN1- pool. Q linya pool; N lhоn; Ilk. line. Cf. Ailin [ay], Taiglin.

LIN2- (originally glin) sing. Q linde air, tune; N lhind, lhinn. Q lindo singer, singing bird: cf. tuilindo swallow, N tuilinn [tuy], Q lуmelinde nightingale, N dъlinn. Q lindele music. Cf. Lau-relin ( Laurelinden), but this also taken as Сhanging-goldТ ( Laurelingen); see ling. Lindon, Lhinnon Ilk. name of Ossiriand: Сmusical landТ (*Lindān-d), because of water and birds; hence Eredlindon, = Mountains of Lindon.

[tuilindo (Сspring-singerТ): cf. I. 269. On the origin of Lindon, Eredlindon see commentary on QS І108.ЦSee glin.]

LIND- fair (especially of voice); in Q blended with slindā (see slin). Q linda fair, beautiful, cf. Lindar, N lhend tuneful, sweet; Ilk. lind.

LING-, N GLING- hang. Q linga- hang, dangle; N gling. Cf. Glingal [and see lin2]

LINKWI- Q linqe wet. N lhimp; lhimmid moisten (pa.t. lhimmint).

LIP- Q limpe (wine), drink of the Valar. [The first appearance of limpe since the Lost Tales, where it was the drink of the Elves; for the old etymology see I.258.]

LIR1- sing, trill; in N g-lir- [see glir]. Q lirin I chant.

LIR2- ON lнre row, range, N lhоr row. Cf. oeglir range of mountain peaks.

LIS- honey. Q lis (lissen); N glо, g-lisi. Cf. megli (meglin adj.) bear (*mad-lī honey-eater [mat], kenning for brфg, see morуk). Cf. Meglivorn = Blackbear.

LIT- Q litse sand; ON litse > litthe, N lith; cf. Fauglith [phau].

LIW- *liсwi fish: Q lingwe; N lhimb, lhim; Dor. lнw.

LOD- *londē narrow path, strait, pass: N lhonn (cf. Aglon); cf. N othlond, othlon paved way (ost city + lond). Q londe road (in sea), entrance to harbour, cf. Alqalonde.

LOK- *great serpent, dragon. Q lуke () dragon; angulуke -dragon [angwa], rбmalуke winged dragon [ram], urulуke fire dragon [ur] fealуke spark-dragon [phay], lingwilуke fish-dragon, sea-serpent [liw]. Cf. N lhыg, amlug, lhimlug.

LOKH- Q lokse hair; N lhaws, lhoch (*lokko) ringlet.

LONO- lуna island, remote land difficult to reach. Cf. Avalуna [awa] = Tol Eressea = the outer isle. [Added to this is A-val-lon.Avallon first appears in the second version of The Fall of Nъmenor (І1) as a name of Tol Eressea with the explanation that Сit is hard by ValinorТ.]

LOS- sleep. Q olor dream, cf. Lуrien = N Lhuien. Q lуre slumber, lorna asleep. N фl dream, oltha [to dream]. [See уlos.]

LOT(H) flower. Q lуte (large single) flower; losse blossom (usually, owing to association with olosse snow, only used of white blossom [see golуs]. N lhoth flower; gwaloth blossom, collection of flowers [wo]. Cf. Wingelot, Wingelуte Foam-flower, N Gwingeloth [wig]; Nimloth [nik-w] = Galathilion.

LU- Q lъme time (cf. lъmeqenta history, chronological account, lъmeqentale history, lъmeqentalea historical); a time, occasion. N lhы. [See kwet.]

LUG1- *lungā heavy: Q lunga; N lhong; Dor, lung; cf. Dor. Mablung [map].

LUG2- *lugni blue: Q lъne; N lhыn (Dor. luin pale, Dan. lygn). Cf. Lъnoronti Blue Mountains, N Eredluin (also Lhъnorodrim, Lhъndirien Blue Towers) = Eredlindon Mountains of Lindon (= Ossiriand). [For an occurrence of Lunoronti see p. 35. Luindirien Blue Towers occurs in a footnote added to QS І108 (commentary).]

LUK- magic, enchantment. N lhыth spell, charm; lhъtha to enchant; Lhъthien enchantress (Dor. Luithien). Q lъke enchantment; luhta enchant. [The etymology of Lъthien changed to read thus:] Doriath luth, whence Luthien (Noldorized as Lhūthien): *luktiēnē.

LUM- Q lumbe gloom, shadow; Hнsilumbe, N Hithlum [khis]. In Q the form is usually Hнsilуme by attraction of lуme night [do?]. N lhum shade, lhumren shady.

LUS- N lhost empty, cf. [Mablothren >] Camlost [kab], Loth-lann [lad]. Q lusta void, empty.

LUT- float, swim. Q lunte boat; N lhunt. N lhoda float.


[The M-entries are faint and difficult to interpret, and some are very confused. My father made a beginning on a new list, writing the etymologies out afresh and clearly, but this petered out after he had treated the stems in ma- and a few others (mbad, mber, mel).]

MAD- Q marya pale, fallow, fawn. N meiр, maнр, hence Maid-hros (anglicized Maidros) = Сpale-glitterТ [rus].

MA? - hand. PQ *?, (ma?-) hand: Q ; ON (pl. mai) usually replaced by kamba (N camm): see kab. Hence *ma?iti handy, skilled, Q maite (pl. maisi); ON maite, N moed. *ma?-tā to handle: Eld. *mahtā-: Q mahta-, ON matthō-be, N matho stroke, feel, handle; wield (confused with *maktā, see mak).

Related is MAG- use, handle, in *magrā useful, fit, good (of things): Q mбra, N maer, *magnā skilled: ON magnā, N maen skilled, clever, maenas craft, handicraft, art. [In the original form of this entry the name Maidros (see mad) was placed under mag: Maedhros > Maenros.]

MAK- sword, or as verb-stem: fight (with sword), cleave. *makla: Q makil sword; N magl, magol. *maktā: Q mahta- wield a weapon (blended with ma?-tā, see ma?), fight: hence mahtar warrior = N maethor. N maeth battle, fight (not of general host but of two or a few), maetha to fight. Cf. Maglaрыr [cf. do??] or Maglaрhonn = Black-sword (as name). Q Maka-laure = Gold-cleaver, name of fifth son of Feanor, N Maglor.

[In the original form of this entry the N forms of the noun СswordТ were megil, magol, and the name СBlack-swordТ was Megildur (> Magladhыr, Maglavorn). If these forms were to replace Mormakil, Mormegil etc. as TъrinТs name in Nargothrond they never appear in the texts.]

MAN- holy spirit (one who has not been born or who has passed through death). Q manu departed spirit; N mān Cf. Q Manwe (also borrowed and used in N [see weg]).

MANAD- doom, final end, fate, fortune (usually = final bliss). Q manar, mande. N manaр. Cf. N manathon. In Q this stem is partly blended with mbad, q.v. and cf. Mandos, Kalamando.

MAP- lay hold of with hand, seize. Q mapa- grasp, seize. ON map- seize, take away by force. Ilk. (Dor.) mab hand (*mapā), cf. Mablung [lug1]. Ilk. Ermab(r)in one-handed (of Beren: cf. Mablosgen emptyhanded = N Erchamron, Camlost). [The forms Ermab(r)in aod Erchamron are certain.]

MASAG- knead, make soft by rubbing, kneading, etc. *mazgā: Q maksa pliant, soft; ON mazga > maiga, N moe soft. *mazgē: Q makse dough, N moeas dough. Ilk. maig dough.

MAT- eat Q mat-; N medi. For megli bear see lis.

MBAD- duress, prison, doom, hell. *mbanda: N band, bann duress, prison; Angband Hell (Iron-prison) (Q Angamanda). Q Mando the Imprisoner or Binder, usually lengthened Mand-os (Mandosse = Dread Imprisoner, N Bannos [gos]. Blended in Q with manЦhence Kalamando Light Mando = Manwe, Morimando Dark Mando = Mandos. mbad is in turn related to bad, q.v.

MBAKH- exchange. Q manka- trade; makar tradesman; mankale commerce. N banc, banga; bachor pedlar; bach article (for exchange), ware, thing (*mbakhā).

MBAL- Q malle street; ambal shaped stone, flag.

MBAR- dwell, inhabit. Q a-mbar (ambaron) СoikoumenēТ, Earth; Endamar, Ambarenya Middle-earth. N ambar, amar Earth; Emmerein, Emerin (Ambarenya) Middle-earth. Mar-tan(ō) Earthbuilder = Aule (N Barthan) [tan]. Gondobar, Findobar [phin]. [With the use of the Greek word oikoumenē here cf. Letters no. 154, p. 197.ЦAmbarendya occurs in the Ambarkanta, IV. 241-3ЦWith Martan cf. I. 266 entry Talka Marda.ЦFindobar was the son of Fingon (p. 451).]

MBARAT- Q umbar (umbarten) fate, doom; N ammarth. Q marta fey, fated; maranwe destiny; martya- destine. N barad doomed; bartho to doom. Cf. Turamarth, Q Turambar [apparently written thus over Turumbar].

MBAS- knead. Q masta- bake, masta bread. N bast bread; bas-gorn loaf [kor].

MBAW- compel, force, subject, oppress. Q mauya- compel; mausta compulsion; maure need. N baug tyrannous, cruel, oppressive; bauglo to oppress; bauglir tyrant, oppressor; bui (*mauy-) (impersonal); baw need. Cf. Gothmog (*Gothom-bauk-) [gos].

MBER- Q meren (merend-) or merende feast, festival; N bereth. Q merya festive; meryale holiday. N beren festive, gay, joyous. [This stem was first mer, and the N words mereth, meren; but a new stem mer was then introduced and the former mer changed to mber, the N words becoming bereth, beren. The name Mereth Aderthad was never changed in the texts.]

MBIRIL- compound of mir and ril, q.v.) Q miril (mirilli) shining jewel; mirilya- glitter. Ilk. bril glass. crystal; cf. Brilthor glittering torrent.

MBOTH- Dor. moth pool, umboth large pool. Cf. Q motto blot, N both puddle, small pool. Cf. Umboth Muilin [muy] = N Elinuial or Hithliniath.

MBUD- project. *mbundu: Q mundo snout, nose, cape; N bund, bunn. Cf. *andambundā long-snouted, Q andamunda elephant, N andabon, annabon [бnad].

MEL- love (as friend). Q mel-; melin dear, melda beloved, dear; melme love; melisse (f.), melindo (m.) lover; melima loveable, fair, Melimar = Lindar. Irregular vocalism: *mālō friend. Q mбlo. N meleth love; mell dear; mellon friend; meldir friend, f. meldis; melethron, melethril lover. mоl love, affection; milui friendly, loving, kind.

MEN- Q men place, spot; mйna region. Cf. Nъmen, Rуmen, Harmen [see khyar], Tormen [which is the form in the Ambarkanta, IV. 244-5, 248-9, changed later to Fromen (phor)].

MER- wish, desire, want. Q mere, pa.t. merne. [See mber.]

MER…K- [This entry was struck out, and the stem mberйk written against it. It was the same as the entry berйk, q.v., except that the Q form was here merka СwildТ for verka, a N form brerg Сwild, fierceТ was given, and bregol was translated СfierceТ.]

MET- end. Q mente point, end; N ment point; meth end (*metta); methen end. Q metya- put an end to.

MI- inside. Q mi in, within; mir and minna to the inside, into; mitya adj. interior.

MIL-IK- Q milme desire, greed; maile lust; mailea lustful; milya- long for; milka greedy; Melko (*Mailikō), N Maeleg (*-) N melch greedy; mael lust; maelui lustful. [The stem vowel ae in the N words was changed to oe: Moeleg, etc. The Gnomish name Moeleg of Melko occurs in Q (IV. 79, 164).]

MINI- stand alone, stick out. Q mine one; minya first; minda prominent, conspicuous; mindo isolated tower. N min one, minei (*miniia) single, distinct, unique; minnas tower, also mindon (*minitaun, cf. tunn [see tun]).

MINIK-W- Q minqe eleven.

MIR- Q, ON mнre; N mоr jewel, precious thing, treasure. Cf. Nauglamоr (Doriathrin form). Mirion ordinary N name of the Silevril (Silmarilli), pl. Miruin; = N Golo(р)vir or Mоr in Geleiр, Dor. Goldamir. [The name Borommīro is scribbled in: see bor.]

MIS- go free, stray, wander. Q mirima free; cf. Mirimor = the Teleri. mista- stray about. N mist error, wandering; misto to stray; mistrad straying, error. [In the long note to QS І29 giving names Сin song and taleТ of the Kindreds of the Elves a name of the Teleri is Сthe FreeТ (and another Сthe WanderersТ).]

MISK- Q miksa wet; N mesg, mesc.

MITH- N mith white fog, wet mist; cf. Mithrim [ringi]. [Later addition: mith = grey.]

MIW- whine. Q maiwe gull. N maew. Q miule whining, mewing.

MIZD- *mizdē: Q miste fine rain; N mнdh dew; Dor mнd moisture (adj. mйd wet, *mizdā); Dan. meord fine rain. Cf. Dor. name Dolmed СWet-headТ [ndol]. [The stems misk-, mith-, mizd- are evidently related, but it is scarcely possible to see from the changes on the manuscript what my father finally intended.]

MŌ- *mōl-: Q mуl slave, thrall; N mыl. Q mуta- labour, toil; N mudo (pa.t. mudas). [Cf. Lhammas І8: mъlanoldorin > mуlanoldorin, language of the Noldor enslaved by Morgoth.]

MOR- *mori black: Q more black (N Жmхr); mordo shadow, obscurity, stain; mуre blackness, dark, night; morna gloomy, sombre; morilinde nightingale (Ilk. murulind, myrilind). N maur gloom; moru black. Ilk. mфr night. Meglivorn: see lis, mat. Morgoth Black Foe [kot] = Melko. Morimando = Mandos [see mbad]. Moriqendi Dark Elves = Morimor, N Duveledh or Dъrion [do?]. [This entry is extremely confused through changes and afterthought additions, and I have tried to arrange the material more sequentially. It is not clear, however, that all the forms given were intended to stand.]

MOR”K- *morуkō bear: Q morko, N brфg; Ilk. broga. [See lis]

MOY- Q moina familiar, dear; ON muina, N muin dear. [See tor.]

MŪ- not, no. [See ugu, umu.]

MUY- Q muina hidden, secret; muile secrecy. Dor. muilin secret, veiled; Umboth Muilin veiled pool = N Lhоn Uial or Eil-inuial. Dor. muil twilight, shadow, vagueness. (Not in N because it became identical with moina [moy].)


[There was no new start made on the N-entries, which remain in their extremely difficult original form. The stems with an initial back nasal consonant (followed by the stop g), represented in the manuscript by a special form of the latter n, are here printed —G-.]

1-[Cf. ana1] Q an, ana, na to, towards, prefix ana-. N na with, by, prefix an-. Also used as genitive sign.

2- [Cf. ana2] be. Stem of verb Сto beТ in Q. Cf. nat thing, N nad.

NAD- Q nanda water-mead, watered plain. N nand, nann wide grassland; naрor, naрras pasture. Dor. nand field, valley. Cf. Nandungorthin, Nan Tathren.

NAK- [Cf. бnak] bite. Q nak- bite; N nag-. Q nahta a bite; N naeth biting, gnashing of teeth [see nay]. N naew (*nakma), Q nangwa jaw. Cf. *an-kā jaw, row of teeth: Q anka, N anc; Anc-alagon СBiting-StormТ, dragon-name [бlak].

NAN- N nana (hypocoristic) mother; naneth. [See am1]

NAR1- flame, fire. Q nбr and nбre flame, cf. Anar Sun; narwā fiery red. N naur flame; Anar Sun; narw, naru red. Cf. Egnor [ek], etc.; for Feanor see phay. Q narqelion Сfire-fadingТ, autumn [kwel]. [The N form Anar is clear. See anбr.]

NAR2- (Q nyar-) tell, relate. Q nyбre tale, saga, history, lumenyбre [lu]; nyarin I tell. ON narуbe he tells a story (pa. t. name), trenare he recounts, tells to end (inf. trenarie).N Жnaro tell; treneri (nennar), pa.t. trenor, trener; trenarn account, tale (ON trenбrna); narn tale, saga (Q nyarna).[For prefix tre- see ter.]

NЅRAK- tear, rend (tr. and intr.). *narāka rushing, rapid, violent: Q naraka harsh, rending, violent; N narcha- to rend, Q narki. N Narog river-name; Nar(o)gothrond [os] = fortress of Narog; Narogardh = realm of Narog.

NAS- point, sharp end. Q nasse thorn, spike; nasta- prick, sting. N nass point, sharp end; angle or corner (cf. ben); nasta prick, point, stick, thrust. Cf. snas, snat.

NAT- (cf. nut) lace, weave, tie. Q natse web, net; N natb web; Dor. nass. N nathron weaver, webster; gonathra- entangle, enmesh, gonathras entanglement. [For prefix go- see wō˘.]

NAUK- Q nauko dwarf. N naug. Cf. Nogrod Dwarf-city [cf. rod?]. Also in diminutive form naugol (naugl-). The name Nauglamоr is strictly Doriathric, in which genitive in Цa(n) preceded. The true N idiom is mоr na Nauglin or Nauglvir >Nauglavir.

[N naug was struck out and replaced by: СN nawag (pl. neweig, neweg); Dor. naugol, whence EN nauglТ; but the rest of the entry was allowed to stand. The stem nбwak was written beside nauk.]

NAY- lament. naeth (nakt-) СbitingТ is associated in N with this stem, and gets senses of gnashing teeth in grief: cf. Nнrnaeth Amediad (or Aronoded) [not]. Q naire lament, naina- lament. N noer adj. sad, lamentable; nae alas, Q nai. Q, ON noi, nui lament (*naye); Nuinoer, Nuinor, name of TъrinТs sister.

NЅYAK- (or perhaps nayka-, elaboration of nak, q.v.) pain. Q. naike sharp pain; naikele; naikelea painful. N naeg pain; negro to pain.

NDAK- slay. ON ndakie to slay, pa.t. ndanke; ndagno slain (as noun), corpse; ndakro slaughter, battle. N degi to slay; daen corpse; dangen slain, cf. Hauр i Ndengin; dagr, dagor battle; dagro to battle, make war. *ndākō warrior, soldier: ON ndуko, N daug chiefly used of Orcs, also called Boldog. [Boldog is an Orc-captain in the Lay of Leithian and in Q І10. The meaning here is that Boldog was used beside daug; see сgwal.]

NDAM- hammer, beat. Q namba a hammer, namba- to hammer. Nambarauto hammerer of copper, sixth son of Fлanor, N Damrod [rautā]. N dam a hammer, damna- to hammer (pa.t. dammint).

NDAN- back. (Cf. Danas; N Dвn, pl. Dein, Daрrin). Q nan-(prefix) backwards. Dor. dфn back (noun). Cf. Q , nān but, on the contrary, on the other hand, a-nanta and yet, but yet. [See dan, and commentary on Lhammas І7.]

NDER- strengthened form of der man (see der). *ndēro bridegroom > Eldarin ndЬr, Q nйr man (blended with dйr); ON ndair, N doer bridegroom. Cf. Ender surname of Tulkas (Endero), as Indis (see ndis) of his wife.

NDEW- follow, come behind. Q neuna (*ndeuna) second; *ndeuro follower, successor: Q neuro, cf. Dor. Dior successor (i.e. of Thingol). The stem is confused with ndū СsinkТ in N.

NDIS- strengthening (parallel to nder of der) of nis СwomanТ, itself elaborated from ini.

NDIS-SĒ/SĀ Q nisse beside nis (see nis, nī) woman. ON ndissa young woman (in N dess was blended with bess, properly СwifeТ); *ndīse bride > ON ndоs, N dнs. Intensive form *i-ndise = Q Indis СbrideТ, name of the goddess Nessa.

NDOL- Q nуla round head, knoll; N dфl (ON ndolo) head. Cf. Q Andolat hill-name, N Dolad. N dolt (pl. dylt) round knob, boss. Cf. Dor. Ndolmed, Dolmed = Wet Head, name of mountain in Eredlindon.

NDOR- dwell, stay, rest, abide. Q nуre land, dwelling-place, region where certain people live, as Vali-nуre (Valinor). The long vowel in Q is due to confusion with nуre clan (nō; ono). N dor (*ndorē); dortho- dwell, stay. Cf. Endor = Endamar Middle-earth. Doriath: see gath. [Under йned Endor is defined as Сcentre of the worldТ. See IV. 254-5.]

NDŪ- (see also nū˘) go down, sink, set (of Sun, etc.). Associated in N with do? night, also with ndew Q nъmen west (see men), nъmenya western; nъta set, sink (of Sun or Moon); andūne (*ndūnē) sunset. N dыn west, beside annыn used as opposite of amrыn (see am); also dъven [?southern].

[Scribbled marginal notes give: СNъmenуre and Andъnie = Land of Great Men (after the Last Battle). ndur, nur bow down, obey, serve; nъro sunset; cf. -dыr in name Isildur.Т In FN 1 (І2) Andъnie was likewise the name of the land of Nъmenor, not (as in FN 11) of its chief town.]

NDUL- See dul. *ndulla: Q nulla dark, dusky, obscure; N doll, cf. Terendul.

N…D- See йned. middle, centre. N enedh core, centre; Q ende.But N nedh- as prefix = mid-.

NEI- tear. Q nнre, nie tear; cf. nieninqe snowdrop [nik-w], Nienna. N nоr tear, weeping; nнrnaeth lamentation [nay]; nоn (*neinē) tear, nнnim snowdrop (nifredil). Q nнte (*neiti-) moist, dewy; N nоd damp, wet; tearful. *neiniel-: N niniel tearful.

NEL- three. N…L-ED- three: Q nelde; N neledh later neled (after canad four). Prefix nel- tri-. nelthil triangle (neltildi) [til]. Doriathrin neldor beech. Cf. Neldoreth name of a forest in Doriath, properly name of Hirilorn, the great beech of Thingol with three trunks = neld-orn? [see уr-ni]. The N name is brethel, pl. brethil (cf. Forest of Brethil); see berйth [where brethil is given as the singular]. The proper Dor. name was galdbreth > galbreth [galad].

N…L-EK- tooth. Q nelet, nelki. ON nele, neleki; N nкl, neleg.

NEN- Q nйn (nen-) water; N nen (pl. nоn). Q nelle (*nen-le) brook; nende pool; nenda watery, wet. N nend, nenn watery. Cf. Ui-nend, Q Uinen [uy].

NE—-WI- nose. Q nengwe, nengwi; nengwea nasal. N nemb, nem; Dor. nоw.

NĒR- Q stem for PQ der- man, derived from influence of ndere and , nis: see nī, der, nder.

N…TER- nine. Q nerte, N neder.

NETH- young. Q Nessa goddess, also called Indis (bride): see nī, ndis. nessa young (*neth-rā); nйse or nesse youth; nessima youthful. N nоth youth (*nēthē); neth young (nethra); Neth or Dineth = Indis Nessa.

—GAL-/—GALAM- talk loud or incoherently. Q сalme clamour; N glamb, glamm (*ngalбmbe, influenced by lambe [lab]) barbarous speech; Glamhoth = Orcs. See lam, glam. [The stem was changed subsequently to сgyal- and Q сalme to yalme.]

—GAN-, —GЅNAD- play (on stringed instrument). Q сande a harp, сandelle little harp; сandele harping; сanda- to harp; сan-daro harper. N gandel, gannel a harp; gannado or ganno play a harp; talagant [> talagand] harper (*tyalaсgando), cf. Talagant [> Talagand] of Gondolin [tyal]. Ilk. gangel, genglin. [Talagant appears in no literary source, but cf. Salgant in the tale of The Fall of Gondolin, the cowardly but not wholly unattractive lord of the People of the Harp: II. 173, 190-1, etc.]

—GAR(A)M- Dor. garm wolf; N garaf, Q сarmo, narmo.

—GAW- howl. N gaur werewolf; Q сauro. N gaul, Q naule wolfhowl. N gaw- howl; gawad howling.

—GOL- wise, wisdom, be wise. Q сolwe wisdom, secret lore; суle wisdom; суla wise, learned; Жingole deep lore, magic (N Жangol). N Жgolw lore, golwen (*ngolwina) wise, learned in deep arts; goll (*ngolda) wise; gollor magician; gыl magic. Dor. ngol, gфl wise, magical; (n)golo magic, lore; durgul, mor(n)gul sorcery.

—GOLOD- one of the wise folk, Gnome. Q сoldo; ON ngolodo, N golodh, pl. goeloeidh, geleidh, and golodhrim; T golodo, Dor. (n)gold; Dan. golda. Q Ingolonde Land of the Gnomes (Beleriand, but before applied to parts of Valinor); N Angolonn or Geleidhien. Goiovir (Mоr in Geleidh) = Silmaril; Dor. Goldamir, Q Noldomнre [mir].

—GOROTH- horror (cf. gor; gos, goth). N Gorgoroth deadly fear (*gor-ngoroth), cf. (Fuin) Gorgoroth, later name of Dorthanion, also called Taur-na-Fuin or Taur-na-Delduath.Cf. Dor. name Nan Dungorthin (Dor. ngorthin horrible, dunn black); Dor. ngorth horror = N goroth, Nan Dongoroth or Nann Orothvor [see dun].

—GUR- ON nguru, ngurtu; N gыr Death, also guruth [see wan]. Q nuru, Nuru (personified) = Mandos; Nurufantur = Mandos Gurfannor [span]. Cf. Gurtholv [> Gurutholf] СWand of DeathТ, sword-name [gуlob].

—GWAL- torment. Q ungwale torture; nwalya- to pain, torment; nwalka cruel. N balch cruel; baul torment, cf. Bal- in Balrog or Bolrog [ruk], and Orc-name Boldog = Orc-warrior СTorment-slayerТ (cf. ndak).

—GYŌ-, —GYON- grandchild, descendant. Q indyo; T endo; ON ango (not in N). Cf. yō, yon.

1- womanЦrelated to īni female, counterpart to ?an male. In Q was archaic and poetic and usually replaced by nis pl. nissi or nisse pl. nissi. See nis, ndis. In Q, PQ dēr СmanТ became nйr (not lйr) owing to blending with ndЬr СbridegroomТ and to influence od , nis (see der, nder).

In ON СwomanТ later > through influence of dоr [see der]; but . was only rare and poetical (Сbride, ladyТ): it was replaced in sense СwomanТ by bess [see bes], and in sense СbrideТ by cpd. di-neth (see neth). Dineth is also N name for the goddess Neth = Q Nessa, and Indis.

2- = I.

NIB- face, front. N nоf(*nībe) front, face. Dor. nef face; nivra- to face, go forward; nivon west, Nivrim West-march, Nivrost West-dales [ros2]. [Nivrim СWest-marchТ occurs in QS І110, and Nivrost СWest ValeТ in QS І106].

NID- lean against. *nidwō bolster, cushion: Q nirwa; ON nidwa, N nedhw.

NIK-W- Q niqe snow; ninqe white (*ninkwi); nieninqe Сwhite tearТ = snowdrop [nei]; ninqita- shine white; ninqitб- whiten; ninqisse whiteness, Taniqetil(de) = High White Horn = N Nimdil-dor (*Ninkwitil(de) Tбra). N nimp (nim) pale; nifred pallor, fear, nimmid to whiten (pa.t. nimmint); nifredil snowdrop; nimred (nimpred) pallor.

NIL-, NDIL- friend. Q nilda friendly, loving; nildo (and nilmo), f. nilde, friend; nilme friendship. In names -nil, -dil = Old English wine, as Elendil (*Eled-nil) = ∆lfwine; Herendil = Eadwine [see kher].

NIN-DI- fragile, thin. Q ninde slender; N ninn.

NIS- Probably an elaboration of ini, nī; feminine counterpart to der СmanТ. Q nis, nissi (see nī).

NŌ- (cf. ono) beget. Q nуre country, land, race (see ndor). N nыr race; noss (=Q nosse) clan, family, СhouseТ, as Nos Finrod House of Finrod. Q onуro brother, onуne sister. ON wanъro N gwanur [wō˘].

—OL- smell (intr.). Q, L holme odour. N ыl odour (*сōle); angol stench.

NOROTH- Q norsa a giant.

NOT- count, reckon. Q not- reckon, onot- count up; nуte number. N noedia count; gonod- count up, reckon, sum up; cf. arnoediad, arnediad, beside aronoded, innumerable, countless, endless; gwanod tale, number [see wō˘]].

NOWO- think, form idea, imagine. Q noa and , pl. nуwi, conception; nause imagination (*nauюe). N naw, pl. nui, idea; nauth- thought; nautha- conceive.

NŪ˘- Cf. ndū Q nъn adv. down below, underneath; no prep. under. N no under, with article nui (Dagor nuin Giliath). *nūrā, or separate stem nur; Q nъra deep; N nыr Cf. Nurqendi = Gnomes; Nъron, N name for Ulmo.

NUT- tie, bind. Q nutin I tie; nъte bond, knot; nauta bound, obliged. N nud-; nыd bond; naud bound.

NYAD- gnaw. *nyadrō: Q nyano rat; N nвr (< naрr).

NYEL- ring, sing, give out a sweet sound. Q nyello singer; nyelle bell; T Fallinel (Fallinelli) = Teleri [phal]. N nell bell; nella- sound bells; nelladel ringing of bells. Q Solonyeldi = Teleri (see sol); in Telerin form Soloneldi.


OKTĀ- See kot. Q ohta war. N auth. Ilk. oth.

”LOS- dream. Q olor dream, Olofantur (s-f>f) = Lуrien. N [olt>] фl (pl. elei); oltha- to dream (*olsa-); Olfannor (= Olo(s)-fantur) [span] = Lуrien. [See los.]

OM- Q уma voice; уman, amandi vowel.

ONO- beget (see nō). Q onta- beget, create (pa.t. уne, ontane); onna creature; ontaro (ontāіro) begetter, parent (f. ontare); ontani parents. N odhron parent (odhril); (*onrō) ed-onna beget; ыn creature.

ORO- up; rise; high; etc. (cf. rō). Q уre rising, anarуre sunrise; orta- rise, raise. N or prep. above; prefix or- as in orchall, orchel superior, eminent (see khal2); ON ortie, orie rise, ortуbe raise; N ortho raise (orthant); erio rise (Жoronte arose).

”ROT- height, mountain. Q oron (pl. oronti) mountain; orto mountain-top. ON oro, pl. oroti, beside oroto; N orod (pl. ereid, ered) mountain; orodrim range of mountains (see rim). Dor. orth, pl. orthin. Cf. Orodreth; Eredwethion, Ered-lindon, Eredlemrin, Eredengrin.

”R-NI- high tree. Q orne tree, high isolated tree. N, Dor. orn. In Doriath used especially of beech, but as suffix in regorn etc. used of any tree of any size. In N used of any large treeЦholly, hawthorn, etc. were classed as toss (tussa) bush [tus]: thus eregdos = holly [erйk]. N om has pl. yrn.

”ROK- *уrku goblin: Q orko, pl. orqi. ON orko, pl. orkui; N orch, pl. yrch. Dor. urch, pl. urchin. Dan urc, pl. yrc

OR”M- *Orōmē: Q Orome; ON Oroume, Araume > Exilic Araw, also called Tauros. See rom.

OS- round, about. N o about, concerning, h before vowel as o Hedhil concerning Elves; os- prefix СaboutТ, as esgeri cut round, amputate (3 sg. osgar). Q osto city, town with wall round. N ost; othrond fortress, city in underground caves = ost-rond (see rod). Cf. Belegost, Nargothrond.

OT- (OTOS, OTOK) seven. Q otso; N odog. Q Otselen Seven Stars, N Edegil, = Great Bear or Valakirka Sickle of the Gods.

OY- ever, eternal. Q oi ever; oia (*oiyā) everlasting; oiale, oire everlasting [?age]; oira eternal. Oiolosse СEverlasting snowТ = Taniqetil = ON Uigolosse, N Uilos, Amon Uilos; uir eternity; uireb eternal. Q Oiakъmi = Avakъma. [This entry replaced that under gey, which itself replaced ey.]


PAD- Q panda enclosure. N in cirban haven; pann courtyard.

PAL- wide (open). Q palla wide, expansive; palu-, palya- open wide, spread, expand, extend; N pelio spread. Q palme surface; N palath surface. Q palъre surface, bosom, bosom of Earth (= Old English folde), hence Palъrien surname of Yavanna. [Later addition:] palan- far, distant, wide, to a great extent; palantir a far-seeing stone.

PALAP- Q palpa- to beat, batter. N blebi for *plebi, blвb flap, beat (wing, etc.).

PAN- place, set, fix in place (especially of wood). Q panya- fix, set; N penio. Q pano piece of shaped wood. *panō: plank, fixed board, especially in a floor: ON pano, panui, N pвn pein; panas floor. Q ampano building (especially of wood), wooden hall.

PAR- compose, put together. *parmā: Q parma book, ON parma, N parf (perf) Q parmalambe book-language = Qenya. ON parthуbi arrange, compose.

PЅRAK- Q parka dry; ON parkha, N parch.

PAT- (cf. path) *pantā open: Q panta, obsolete in ON owing to coalescence with qanta full. Q panta- to unfurl, spread out, open. N panno to open, enlarge; pann (*patnā) wide.

PATH- *pathnā: ON pattha, N path Q pasta smooth. *pathmā: ON pathwa, N pathw level space, sward.

PEG- mouth. Q .

PEL- revolve on fixed point. Q pel- go round, revolve, return. *peltakse: Q peltas, pl. peltaksi pivot; ON pelthaksa, N pelthaes pivot (see tak).

PEL(ES)- ON pele (pl. pelesi, peleki) [Old English] СtūnТ, fenced field. N pel, pl. peli. Q peler, opele walled house or village, СtownТ; N gobel, cf. Tavrobel (village of Tъrin in the forest of Brethil, and name of village in Tol Eressea) [tam]; Tindobel = starlit village [tin]. [On this remarkable reference to Tavrobel see p. 462.]

PEN-, P…NED- Q pende slope, downslope, declivity; ampende upward slope, penda sloping down, inclined. N pend, penn declivity; ambenn uphill; dadbenn downhill, inclined, prone [see am2, dat]. N pendrad or pendrath passage up or down slope, stairway. [See note to den.]

PER- divide in middle, halve. Q perya, perina; N perin, cf. Peringol = half-Elf, or Gnome. [Cf. Beringol and Peringiul СHalf-elvenТ, commentary on AB 2 annal 325; also Pereldar СHalf-eldarТ, Danas, in QS І28. The puzzling words Сor GnomeТ should perhaps be interpreted as if Сhalf-elf, or rather half-Gnome (perin + сgol)Т.]

PERES- affect, disturb, alter. N presto to affect, trouble, disturb; prestannen СaffectedТ, of vowel [i.e. СmutatedТ]; prestanneth СaffectionТ of vowels. ON persōs it affects, concerns. [This entry is found on a detached slip.]

PHAL-, PHЅLAS- foam. Q falle foam; falma (crested) wave: falmar or falmarin (falmarindi) sea-spirit, nymph; falasse beach; Falanyel, pl. Falanyeldi = Solonel, name of the Teleri, also in Telerin form Fallinel (see nyel). N falf foam, breaker; faltho (ON phalsуbe) to foam; falas (pl. feles) beach, shore, as proper name i Falas west coast (of Beleriand), whence adj. Falathren. The variant spбlas is seen in espalass foaming [?fall]; T spalasta- to foam, froth. [With falmarin Сsea-spiritТ cf. Falmarini, spirits of the foam, in the Lost Tales, I. 66. Falmarindi is used of the Teleri: p. 452.]

PHAR- reach, go all the way, suffice. Q farya- suffice (pa.t. farne); fбre sufficiency, plentitude, all that is wanted; farea enough, sufficient. EN farn enough; far adv. sufficient, enough, quite.

PHAS- Q fasse tangled hair, shaggy lock; fasta- tangle. ON phasta shaggy hair, EN fast (cf. Ulfast [ъlug]).

PHAU- gape. Q fauka open-mouthed, thirsty, parched; ON phauka thirsty, N faug thirsty; Dor na Fauglith (thirsty sand, see lit).

PHAY- radiate, send out rays of light. Q faina- emit light; faire radiance; ON phaire. Cf. Phay-anāro Сradiant sunТ > Q Feanбro, ON Phayanō΄r, N Feanoъr, Fйanor. Cf. N foen radiant, white. [See span.]

PH…LEG- cave. T felga cave; Q felya; ON phelga, N fela, pl. fili; cf. Felagund [kundū].

PHEN- Q fenda threshold; ON phenda, N fend, fenn.

PHER-, PH…REN- beech. Q feren or ferne (pl. ferni) beech-tree; ferna mast, beechnuts; ferinya beechen. T ferne. ON pheren beech; pherna mast; Exilic fкr was usually replaced by brethil (see berйth).

PHEW- feel disgust at, abhor. Q feuya; ON phuiуbe, N fuio.

PHI- Q fion (fioni, fiondi) [....] Cf. Fionwe son of Manwe [see weg]. [The meaning of Q fion is unfortunately not certainly legible; the likeliest interpretation would be СhasteТ, but СhawkТ is a possibility.]

PHILIK- small bird. Q filit, pl. filiki; N filig pl., analogical singular fileg or filigod.

PHIN- nimbleness, skill. ON phinde skill, phinya skilled; *Phinderauto, N Finrod [rautā]. Cf. Q Finwe, ON Phinwe, name of chief Gnome (Exilic *Finw [see weg]). Find- occurs also in names Findabar (*Phind-ambar), Fingon (*Findekāno) [kan]; phinya or -phini occurs in Fingolfin (+ ngolfмne Сmagic skillТ), Isfin [is], Curufin [kur]; distinguish spin in Glorfindel. [On the absence of Finw in Exilic Noldorin see also the passage at the end of the Lhammas І11.ЦThe name Findabar appears in the entry mbar in the form Findobar, as also in the Genealogies, p. 451.]

PHIR- Q firin dead (by natural cause), fнrima mortal; fire mortal man (firi); firya, human; Firyanor = Hildуrien; ilfirin (for *ilpirin) immortal; faire natural death (as act). N feir, pl. fоr mortals; firen human; fern, pl. firn dead (of mortals). Dor firn i guinar Land of the Dead that Live [kuy]. Firiel = Сmortal maidТ, later name of Lъthien.

PHOR- right-hand. Q forya right; formaite righthanded, dexterous [ma?]. formen north, formenya northern [men]. N foeir, feir right (hand); forgam righthanded [kab]; forven north, also forod; forodren northern. Cf. Forodwaith Northmen, Norther-land [weg]; Forodrim. *phoroti: Q forte. N forn right or north. (Cf. khyar.)

PHUY- Q fuine, huine deep shadow; Fui, Hui Night. ON phuine night, N fuin; cf. Taur na Fuin = Taure Huinйva.

PIK- ON pika small spot, dot; N peg. ON Pikina tiny, N pigen.

PЌLIM- Q pilin (pilindi) arrow.

PIS- Q pirya juice, syrup. N peich; pichen juicy.

PIW- spit. Q piuta; ON puiуbe, N puio.

POL-, POLOD- physically strong. Q polda strong, burly. Cf. poldore, adj. Poldуrea.

POR- *pori: Q pore flour, meal.

POTŌ- animalТs foot. ON poto, poti, N pфd, pyd.

POY- *poikā clean, pure: Q poika; N puig clean, tidy, neat.

PUS- stop, halt, pause. Q pusta- to stop, to put a stop to, and intr. cease, stop; pusta (noun) stop, in punctuation full stop. N post pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite. [An added entry gives put-, with Q putta stop (in punctuation), pusta- to stop, punta a stopped consonant; but the entry pus- was not cancelled or changed.]


RAB- *rāba wild, untamed: Q rбva, N rhaw wilderness. [Q rбva and N rhaw with wholly different meaning are also derivatives from stem rambā, and N rhaw appears in a third sense under raw.]

RAD- back, return. Dor. radhon east (cf. nivon forward = west [nib]); Radhrim East-march (part of Doriath); Radhrost East-vale, land of Cranthir under Blue Mountains [ros2]. *randā cycle, age (100 Valian Years): Q, ON randa; N anrand.

RAG- *ragnā: ON ragna crooked, N rhaen.

RAK- stretch out, reach. *ranku: Q ranko arm, pl. ranqi; ON ranko, pl. rankui; N rhanc, pl. (archaic) rhengy, usually rhenc, arm. *rakmē fathom: Q rangwe; ON ragme, N rhaew.

RAM- *rāmā: Q rбma wing, cf. Earrбme СSea-wingТ [ay], name of TuorТs ship. N rhenio (*ramya-) fly, sail; wander (cf. ran); rhofal pinion, great wing (of eagle), pl. rhofel (*rāmalē); rhafal wing (horn), extended point at side, etc. (*rāmna). [With rhofal cf. Сwide-winged LhandrovalТ in QS (p. 331); for the first element see lad.]

RAMBĀ- Q ramba wall, cf. Ilurambar, N rhamb, rham, cf. Andram СLong WallsТ [бnad] in Beleriand. Q rбva bank, especially of a river; N rhaw [see rab, raw].

RAN- wander, stray. *Ranā: Q Rana Moon, N Rhвn. Q ranya- to stray, N rhenio (cf. ram); Q rбne straying, wandering, rбnen errant; N rhaun, [added later:] N rhandir wanderer, pilgrim.

RAS- stick up (intr.). Q rasse horn (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains); N rhaes, rhasg; cf. Caradras = Redhorn [karбn]. (This entry was an addition at the end of the list. The N words and the reference to Caradras were scribbled in still later.]

RЅSAT- twelve. [No other forms are given.]

RAT- walk. *ratā N rвd path, track; rado to make a way, find a way; ath-rado to cross, traverse [at(at)]; athrad crossing, ford, cf. Sarn Athrad. *rattā˘: ON rattha course, river-bed, N rath (cf. Rathloriel) [lбwar]. ostrad a street. [Added:] rant lode, vein; Celbrant river-name. Ilk. rant flow, course of river.

RAUTĀ- metal. Q, ON rauta; N rhaud, cf. -rod in names Finrod, Angrod, Damrod (see phin, angā, ndam). [The original meaning of rautā was given as СcopperТ, changed to СmetalТ; cf. Nambarauto (Damrod) Сhammerer of copperТ under ndam.]

RAW- *rāu: Q (pl. rбvi) lion; ON (pl. rуwi), N rhaw (pl. rhui). [Cf. I. 260, entry Meбssл.ЦDistinct N words rhaw appear under rab and rambā.]

RЅYAK- Q raika crooked, bent, wrong; N rhoeg wrong.

RED- (Cf. erйd) scatter, sow. Q rerin I sow, pa.t. rende; N rheрi to sow. ?reddā СsownТ, sown field, acre.

REG- edge, border, margin. Q rйna. N rhein, rhain border; edrein.

REP- bend, hook. rempa crooked, hooked.

RĪ- Q rнma edge, hem, border. Dor. rim (as in Nivrim [nib], Radhrim [rad]); N rhоf.

RIG- Q rie crown (*rīgē); rнna crowned (cf. Tinwerнna); ON rнge, N rhо crown. Cf. Rhian name of a woman, = Сcrown-giftТ, rīg-anna [ana1]; N rhоn crowned; rhоs queen. [Elerнna, which was substituted for Tinwerнna in a note dated February 1938 (p. 219), appears in a marginal addition to entry el.]

RIK(H)- jerk, sudden move, flirt. Q rihta- jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch, *rinki: Q rinke flourish, quick shake. N rhitho jerk, twitch, snatch; rhinc twitch, jerk, trick, sudden move.

RIL- glitter (cf. sil, thil, gil). Q rilma glittering light; rilya glittering, brilliance. Cf. Silmarille, Silmaril (pl. Silmarilli), N Silevril (*silimarille).

RIM- *rimbā: Q rimba frequent, numerous; ON rimba, N rhemb, rhem. *rмmbē crowd, host; Q, ON rimbe, N rhimb, rhim Цoften as pl. -rim [see li].

RIN- Q rinde circle, rinda circular. N rhind, rhinn circle; iрrind, iрrin year [yen]; rhinn circular; rhingorn circle [kor].

RINGI- cold. Q ringe; ON ringe, N rhing; cf. Ringil name of one of the great Lamps (pillared on ice), also of FingolfinТs sword. Q ringe cold pool or lake (in mountains); Dor. ring, N rhimb, rhim, as in Mith-rim.

RIP- rush, fly, fling. Q rimpa rushing, flying; N rhib-, rhimp, rhimmo to flow like a [?torrent]; river-name Rhibdath, Rhimdath СRushdownТ. [This entry was a hasty scribbled addition at the end of the R-stems.]

RIS- slash, rip. ON rista- rend, rip; N risto. Cf. Orchrist sword-name. [This entry was left unchanged, but a second form of it was added later without reference to the first.]

RIS- Cf. kirнs; cut, cleave. *rista-: Q rista- cut; rista a cut; N rhisto, rhest, Ilk. rest, cf. Eglorest, ghyll or ravine made by the river Eglor [see eled] at its mouth, name of town there. *risse-: N rhis, rhess a ravine, as in Imladris.

RŌ- (form of oro, q.v.) rise. Q rуmen (see men) east, rуmenya eastern; rуna east; contrast ndū СdownТ. ON rуna east, N rhыn, amrыn (cf. dыn, annыn); Жrhufen east. Cf. name El-rыn.[El-rыn was an addition. See note to barath.]

ROD- cave. Q rondo cave; N rhond, rhonn, cf. Nargothrond, othrond (see os). Dor. roth, pl. rodhin, as in Meneg-roth is probably from rōda > rōdh > rōth. Cf. ON rauda hollow, cavernous, N rhauр. ON rostуbe to hollow out, excavate, N rosto.In Ilkorin rond = domed roof, hence Elrond (vault of heaven) [el], name of EдrendelТs son.

ROK- Q rokko horse; N roch horse.

ROM- (Cf. orуm and Orome, Araw) loud noise, horn-blast, etc. Q romba horn, trumpet; ON romba, N rhom. Q rуma loud sound, trumpet-sound; ON rъma, N Жrhы in rhomru sound of horns.

ROS1- distil, drip. Q rosse fine rain, dew. N rhoss rain, cf. name Celebros Silver-rain of a waterfall. Silivros = Q Silmerosse, name of Silpion. [Both Silivros and Silmerosse are found in the list of the names of the Trees in QS І16. Celebros is translated СSilver RainТ in AB 2 annal 299 (previously СFoam-silverТ, СSilver FoamТ).]

ROS2- Dor. rost plain, wide land between mountains; cf. Nivrost [nib], Radhrost [rad].

ROY1- chase. *ronyō СchaserТ, hound of chase: Q ronyo, N rhyn Q roita- pursue; raime hunt, hunting; N rhui(w).

ROY2- (N groj-) ruddy, red. Q roina ruddy; N gruin. [This second stem roy was put in very rapidly at the end of the R-stems and without any reference to the former.]

RUD- *rundā: Q runda rough piece of wood; ON runda, N grond club; cf. Grond name of MelkoТs mace, and name Cele-brond СSilver-maceТ.

RUK- demon. Q ranko demon, malarauko (*сgwalaraukō, cf. сgwal); N rhaug, Balrog.

RUN- flat of hand or sole of foot. Q runya slot, footprint; tallune (*talrunya) sole of foot, N telloein, tellen [tal]. N rhoein, rhein slot, spoor, track, footprint.

RUS- flash, glitter of metal. Q russe corruscation, Жsword-blade; ON russe polished metal (N Жrhoss chiefly found in names as Maedhros [mad], Findros, Celebros etc., owing to coalescence with ros1).

RUSKĀ- ON ruska, N rhosc brown.


S- demonstrative stem. sū˘, sō˘ he (cf. -so inflexion of verbs); sī˘, sē˘ she (cf. -se inflexion of verbs). Cf. N ho, hon, hono he; he, hen, hene she; ha, hana it; plurals huin, hоn, hein.

SAB- Q sбva juice; ON sуba N saw (pl. sui).

SAG- *sagrā: Q sбra bitter; N saer. *sagmā: Q sangwa poison; N saew.

SALЅK-(WĒ) Q salde grass; Ilk. salch. ON salape herb, green food plant, N salab (pl. seleb) herb.

SЅLAP- lick up. Q salpa- lick up, sup, sip; ON salpha liquid food, soup, broth; N salf broth.

SAM- unite, join. samnar diphthongs. [Hasty later addition; see sud and sus.]

SAR- Q sar, pl. sardi stone (small); sarna of stone; sarne strong place. N sarn stone as a material, or as adj.; cf. Sarnathrad.

SAY- know, understand. saira- wise; sairon wizard.

SED- rest (cf. ezdē СrestТ, Q Este, ON Ezda, wife of Lуrien). Q sйre rest, repose, peace; senda resting, at peace; serin I rest. N sоdh peace.

SEL-D- daughter [see yel]. Q selde. In N iell (poetic sell girl, maid) with i from iondo son [yō]; a change assisted by the loss of s in cpds. and patronymics: cf. Tinnъviel (*tindōmiselde, Q Tindуmerel), see tin. [The meaning СdaughterТ was later changed to СchildТ, with Q forms seldo, selda added.]

SER- love, be fond of (of liking, friendship). Q suffix -ser friend; sermo friend (f. serme). also seron. Cf. name Elesser (Eleрser) = ∆lfwine.

SI- this, here, now. Q , sin now; sinya new. N sein (pl. sоn) new; siniath news, tidings; sinnarn novel tale [nar2].

SIK- Q sikil dagger, knife; N sigil.

SIL- variant of thil; Сshine silverТ. These in Q cannot be distinguished normally, but Q Isil Moon, N ЖIthil has th.s- appears in *silimē Сlight of SilpionТ, Жsilver, Q silme (cf. Silmerosse, N Silivros), N *silif. *silimā silver, shining white (adj.): Q .silma, N *silef, cf. Silevril, Q Silmaril (see ril). In N Belthil (see bal) s or th may be present. The Q name of the Elder Tree is Silpion (see below).

Cf. Dor istel, istil silver light, applied by the Ilkorins to starlight, probably a Q form learned from Melian. For *silif N has silith, by assimilation to or from influence of ЖIthil.

Related is SЌLIP whence Q Silpion (N *Silfion, not used).

SIR- flow. Q sir-, ON sirya-, N sirio flow. Q, ON sнre, N sоr river (cf. Sirion); Q siril rivulet.

SIW- excite, egg on, urge. Q siule incitement; ON hyъle, N hыl cry of encouragement in battle.

SKAL1- screen, hide (from light). Q halya- veil, conceal, screen from light; halda (*skalnā) veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady (opposed to helda stripped bare, see skel). ON skhalia-, skhalla; N hall; haltha- to screen. Ilk. esgal screen, hiding, roof of leaves. Dan. sc(i)ella shade, screen. Derivative name Haldir Сhidden heroТ [der] (son of Orodreth); also Ilk. Esgalduin СRiver under VeilТ (of [?leaves]). [There seems to be a query before the bracketed words at the end of the entry.]

SKAL2- small fish. Q hala; halatir(no) СfishwatcherТ, king-fisher; N heledir. [This stem was a later addition; see khal1, tir.]

SKAR- *skarwē: Q harwe wound; N harw. Cf. Ilk. esgar. *skarnā: Q harna wounded; N harn; harno to wound (Q harna-). Root sense: tear, rend; cf. *askarā tearing, hastening: N asgar, ascar violent, rushing, impetuous. Ilk. ascar (cf. river-name Askar).

SKAT- break asunder. Q hat-, pa.t. hante; terhat- break apart.

SKEL- *skelmā: Q helma skin, fell. N helf fur, heleth fur, fur-coat. *skelnā naked: Q helda; ON skhella, N hell. helta (skelta-) strip.

SKWAR- crooked. Q hwarin crooked; hwarma crossbar. Dan. swarn perverse, obstructive, hard to deal with.

SKYAP- *skyapat- shore: Q hyapat; ON skhapa, pl. skhapati; N habad shore (pl. hebeid).

SLIG- *slignē, *slingē: N thling spider, spiderТs web, cobweb. Q lнne cobweb; N thlingril [r uncertain] spider. Q lia fine thread, spider filament (*ligā); N thlк; Q liante spider. Cf. Ungoliante [uсg], N Deldu-thling [do?, dyel].

SLIN- *slindi fine, delicate. Q linda СfairТ is blended with *lindā sweet-sounding [see lind]. N thlinn, thlind fine, slender; thlein (pl. thlоn) = *slinyā lean, thin, meagre.

SLIW- sickly. *slīwē sickness: Q lнve, ON slнwe, thlнwe, N thliw later fliw. *slaiwā sickly, sick, ill; Q laiwa, ON slaiwa, thlaiwa, N thlaew [> thloew] later flaew.

SLUK- swallow. [No forms given.]

SLUS-, SRUS- whisper. N thloss (floss) or thross a whisper or rustling sound; Q lusse a whispering sound, lussa- to whisper.

SMAG- soil, stain. N maw (*māgā) soil, stain, mael (*magla) stain and adj. stained. [N maw and mael changed to hmas and hmael; see note to smal.]

SMAL- yellow. *smalinā: Q, ON malina yellow, N malen (pl. melin). *smaldā: Q malda gold (as metal), ON malda, N malt; N malthen (analogical for mallen) of gold. Cf. Melthinorn, older Mellinorn. *smalu pollen, yellow powder: Q malo, ON malo (pl. malui), N mвl, pl. meil or mely. *smalwā fallow, pale: Q malwa, N malw.

*asmalē, *asmalindē yellow bird, Сyellow hammerТ: Q ammale, ambale; ON ammale, ammalinde, N em(m)elin, emlin.[I give this entry as it was before it became confused by later changes in the phonology of initial sm- (ON retained sm-, and the N words have (h)m-); these were not carried through consistently.ЦMelthinorn Сtree of goldТ is found in the list of names of the Trees in QS І16.]

SNAR- tie. Q narda knot; N narр.

SNAS-, SNAT- ? Q nasta spear-head, point, gore, triangle (cf. nas); Dan. snЬИs. N naith (natsai pl.?) gore. [Cf. the Naith of Lothlуrien. The question-mark is followed by a drawing of an arrow-head.]

SNEW- entangle. Q neuma snare; ON nъma, N noose, snare. [The N forms were changed to sniuma and snyma; hniof (pl. hnyf) and hnuif. See note to smal.]

SNUR- twist. N norn twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted; norр cord.

SOL- Q solor (*solos) surf, cf. Solonel, pl. Soloneldi = Teleri. This is a Telerin form, cf. Fallinel, and cf. pure Q Solonyeldi [see nyel].

SPAL-, SPALAS- variants of phal, phalas, q.v.

SPAN- white. Q fanya, fбna cloud. N fein white, faun cloud (*spāna); T spania; Dan. spenna. Cf. Fanyamar upper air; Spanturo Сlord of cloudТ, Q Fantur surname of Mandos (Nurufantur, N Gurfannor Сlord of Death-cloudТ) and of his brother Lуrien (Olofantur, N Olfannor Сlord of Dream-cloudТ): N pl. i-Fennyr or Fennir = Lуrien and Mandos [see сgur, olos]. (Confused in N with phay, q.v.) [The beginning of this entry was first written Сfanya cloudТ; СcloudТ was struck through, and fбna added, with meanings СwhiteТ and СcloudТ, but it is not clear how they are to be applied.ЦFor Fanyamar see the Ambarkanta, IV. 236 etc.ЦI do not think that this association of the Fanturi with СcloudТ is found anywhere else.]

SPЅNAG- *spangā: Q fanga; T spanga; ON sphanga beard; N fang, cf. An(d)fang [бnad] Longbeard, one of the tribes of Dwarves (pl. Enfeng). Cf. Tinfang СStarbeardТ, name of an Elvish piper, Ulfang [ъlug].

SPAR- hunt, pursue. ON (s)pharуbe hunt, (s)pharasse hunt(ing); EN faras hunting (cf. Taur-na-Faras); feredir hunter (pl. faradrim); faro to hunt. Elfaron Сstar-hunterТ, Moon. [With Taur-na-Faras (the Hills of the Hunters or HuntersТ Wold) cf. Taur-na-Faroth in QS І112, and with the name СStar-hunterТ of the Moon cf. QS І76.]

SPAY- despise, contemn. Q faika contemptible, mean. N foeg mean, poor, bad.

SPIN- *spindē trees, braid of hair: Q finde, ON sphinde lock of hair; sphнndele (braided) hair; N findel, finnel, cf. Glorfindel. Cf. spinē larch, Q fine.

SRIP- scratch. N thribi to scratch.

STAB- *stabnē, *stambē: Q sambe room, chamber; samna wooden post. ON stabne, sthamne; N thafn post, wooden pillar; tham, thamb hall. Q kaimasan, pl. kaimasambi bedchamber [kay]. N thambas, thamas great hall. *stabnō, *stabrō carpenter, wright, builder: Q samno; ON sthabro(ndo), N thavron; Ilk. thavon.

STAG- press, compress, *stangā: Q sanga crowd, throng, press; N thang compulsion, duress, need, oppression; cf. Thangorodrim (the mountains of duress). Cf. sangahyando Сthrong-cleaverТ (sword-name), N *haрathang, dissimilated to havathang, haрafang [ see syad].

STAK- split, insert. *stankā, *staknā: Q sanka cleft, split; ON sthanka, N thanc, cf. Lhamthanc Сforked tongueТ, serpent-name [lab]. ON nestak- insert, stick in, EN nestegi, pa.t. nestanc.

STAL- steep. Ilk. thall (*stalrē) steep, falling steeply (of river); thalos torrent (also a proper name) [the river Thalos in Ossiriand].

STЅLAG- *stalga stalwart, steady, firm: T stalga; ON sthalga, N thala, cf. thalion (*stalgondō) hero, dauntless man (pl. thelyn), especially as surname of Hъrin Thalion.

STAN- fix, decide. Cf. Q sanda firm, true, abiding; N thenid, thenin. Q sanye rule, law; sanya regular, law-abiding, normal.

STAR- stiff. Q sara stiff dry grass, bent; N thвr stiff grass; tharas hassock, footstool; gwa-star hummock [wō˘]. ON stharna sapless, stiff, rigid, withered; N tharn; not in Q since it would coalesce with *sarnā of stone [sar].

STARAN- Cf. Ilk. thrфn stiff, hard (*starāna); cf. thron-ding in Balthronding name of BelegТs bow. [Under stems bel and ding the name is written Bel-.]

STELEG- N thela point (of spear); egthel, ecthel, cf. Ecthelion (see ek). [An illegible word after ecthel may read СsameТ, i.e. the same meaning as thela.]

STINTĀ- short. Q sinta; ON sthinta, N thent. N thinnas СshortnessТ, name of mark indicating short quality of vowel.

SUD- base, ground, sundo base, root, root-word. [A hasty later addition.]

SЏLUK- Q sulka; ON sulkha, N solch root (especially as edible).

SUK- drink. Q sukin I drink. N sogo, 3 sg. sфg, pa.t. sunc, aso-gant (sogennen); N sыth draught, Q suhto; N sautha- drain. *sukmā drinking-vessel; Q sungwa; Ilk. .saum.

Variant SUG- in *suglu: Q sъla goblet, N sыl.

SUS- hiss. surya spirant consonant. [Later addition with sud and sam.]

SWAD- *swanda: Q hwan (hwandi) sponge, fungus; N chwand, chwann, hwand.

SWES- noise of blowing or breathing. *swesta-: Q hwesta- to puff; hwesta breath, breeze, puff of air; ON hwesta, N chwest puff, breath, breeze.

SWIN- whirl, eddy. Q hwinya- to swirl, eddy, gyrate; hwinde eddy, whirlpool. N chwinio twirl, whirl, eddy; chwind, chwinn adj.; chwоn giddiness, faintness; chwiniol whirling, giddy, fantastic.

SYAD- shear through, cleave. Q hyarin I cleave. *syadnō, *syandō СcleaverТ, sword; cf. *stangasyandō = Q sangahyando Сthrong-cleaverТ (sword-name) (see stag). In N lost owing to coalescence with khad [a stem not given in the Etymologies], except in Жhвр [....] (*syadā), cf. haрafang (for haрathang) = Q sangahyando; hasto hack through, from hast axe-stroke (*syad-ta). Cf. Q hyatse cleft, gash (*syadsē > syatsē), and N hathel (*syatsē˘la) broadsword-blade, or axe-blade. [The illegible word would most naturally be interpreted as СthrongТ, but this obviously cannot be the case (or cannot have been intended).]

SYAL- *syalmā: Q hyalma shell, conch, horn of Ulmo. N half seashell.


TA- demonstrative stem СthatТ. Q ta that, it; tana that (anaphoric); tar thither (*tad), ON .

TĀ-, TAS- high, lofty; noble. *tārā lofty: Q tбra, ON tбra absorbed in N by taur from PQ *taurā (see tбwar, tur). N poetic only or in ancient titles taur; often found in names, as Tor-, -dor. The latter was blended with tāro king and turo master: cf. Fannor [span].

*tāro king: only used of the legitimate kings of the whole tribes, as Ingwe of the Lindar, Finwe of the Noldor (and later Fingolfin and Fingon of all the exiled Gnomes). The word used of a lord or king of a specified region was aran (вr), Q haran [see ?ar]. Thus Fingolfin taur egledhriur СKing of the ExilesТ [see led], but Fingolfin aran Chithlum СKing of HithlumТ. Q tбr (pl. tбri). N -Жtaur, Ilk. tфr, only used of Thingol: Tor Thingol = King Thingol.

*tārī queen, wife of a *tāro: Q tбri, but especially used in Q of Varda (Tinwetбri Queen of Stars)Цbut in cpds. and titles the sexless cpd. form -tar was used: Tinwetar, Tinwerontar Queen of Stars = Varda; Sorontar King of Eagles (name of a great eagle). The word survived in Ilk. only in form tуril = Melian. In N rhien, rhоn was used ЦТcrowned ladyТ: see rig.

Base stem tā appears in Q Taniqetil (see nik-w, til), where N substitutes following adj.: Nimdil-dor. But the Q form is possibly reduction of tān-nig with adjectival tāna < *ta?na. The latter is suggested by N taen height, summit of high mountain, especially in Taen-Nimdil, ManweТs hall. Cf. also tarqendi = Lindar, СHigh-elvesТ; tarqesta = Lindarin, or Qenya Сhigh-speechТ. [On Tinwetar, Tinwerontar see tin and note.]

TAK- fix, make fast. Q take he fastens, pa.t. tanke; tanka firm, fixed, sure. N taetho fasten, tie; tanc firm; tangado to make firm, confirm, establish. Ilk. taga he fixes, constructs, makes; tвch firm, stiff, solid.

*tankla pin, brooch: Q tankil; Ilk. tangol; N tachl, tachol. *taksē nail: Q takse; N taes, Ilk. tass pin. Cf. Q peltas (peltaksi) pivot, N pelthaes [pel]. *takmā Сthing for fixingТ: Q tangwa hasp, clasp; N taew holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple: Ilk. taum. *atakwē construction, building: Q ataqe; N adab building, house (pl. edeb).

TAL- foot. Q tбl ( talen); N tвl, pl. teil; Ilk. tal, pl. tel. Related is TALAM floor, base, ground: Q talan (talami) floor, ground; talma base, foundation, root (cf. Martalmar). N talaf ground, floor, pl. teleif, Ilk. talum, pl. telmin. tai- is often used for Сend, lower endТ: so Rhamdal СWallТs-endТ, name of a place in East Beleriand [rambā].ЦQ tallune (*talrunya) sole of foot; N tellein, tellen (see run), [For Martalmar (also Talmar Ambaren) see the Ambarkanta, IV. 241-5.]

TALЅT- to slope, lean, tip. Q talta- to slope; talta adj. sloping, tilted, leaning; talta an incline. N talad an incline, slope. atland sloping, tilted; atlant oblique, slanting; atlanno to slope, slant. [This entry was first written thus. A first addition to it was СCf. Atalante (see lant).Т Subsequently the reference to lant was changed to dat (under which stem (dat, dant) are given Q lanta a fall, lanta- to fall, and Atalante the Fallen); but either at the same time or later this addition was made: СAtalante (a-prefix = complete) downfall, overthrow, especially as name of the land of Nъmenor.Т Cf. the statement on this subject in my fatherТs letter of July 1964, cited on p. 8 (footnote).ЦOther additions to this entry extended the meaning of Q talta- (Сslope, slip, slide downТ) and added Q atalta Сcollapse, fall inТ and N talt Сslipping, falling, insecure.Т]

TAM- (cf. ndam) knock. *tamrō СwoodpeckerТ (= knocker): Q tambaro; N tafr (= tavr), tavor, cf. Tavr-obel [pel(es)]. N tamno to knock (*tambā΄); Q tamin I tap, pa.t. tamne; tamba- to knock, keep on knocking.

TAN- make, fashion, *tanō: Q tano craftsman, smith; Martano or Martan, surname of Aule (Earth-smith), N Barthan [mbar]. Q tanwe craft, thing made, device, construction. Q kentano potter; N cennan. [Certhan >] C(e)irdan shipbuilder. Tintбnie star-maker = Varda (Elbereth); N Gilthonieth or Gilthoniel.[The latter part of this entry, from Q kentano, was an addition. Under kem a Q word kemnaro СpotterТ is given. The form Gilthonieth appears in the first draft of the hymn to Elbereth in the original second chapter (Three is Company) of The Lord of the Rings.]

TAP- stop. Q tбpe he stops, blocks (pa.t. tampe); tampa stopper.

TЅRAG- *targā tough, stiff; Q tarya; ON targa, N tara, tar-; Ilk. targ. N tarlanc stiff-necked, obstinate; tarias [s uncertain] stifнness, toughness, difficulty. [There must be a connection between tarlanc Сstiff-neckedТ (lank) and TarlangСs Neck (The Return of the King V.2), concerning which my father noted (Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings, published in Lobdell, A Tolkien Compass, p. 193) that it was originally the name of a long ridge of rock but was later taken as a personal name.]

TARЅK- horn (of animals). Q tarka horn; N tarag horn, also used of steep mountain path, cf. Tarag(g)er = Ruddihorn [gay]. [This entry was additional to the main list. On Taragaer see p. 382.]

TARAS- ON tarsa trouble, N tars, tass labour, task. trasta- to harass, trouble.

TATA- (cf. ata, atta). N tвd two, tadol double. Q tatya- to double, repeat; tanta double. [An earlier entry, struck out, was as follows: СTAT- oldest form at(at)? two. Q atta again, atta- back again, re-Т. See at(at).]

TATHAR- *tathar, *tatharē, *tathrē willow-tree: Q tasar, tasare; N tathor (= *tathrē), adj. tathren of willow; cf. Nan-tathren.

TЅWAR- wood, forest. *taurē great wood, forest: Q taure; N taur, Ilk. taur. N Tauros СForest-DreadТ [gos], usual N by-name of Orome (N Araw). *tawar wood (material): Q tavar wood, taurina of wood; N tawar often used = taur, tawaren wooden (pl. tewerin). Ilk. taur wood (place and material). tawarō˘/ē˘ dryad, spirit of woods: Q tavaro or tavaron, f. tavaril [cf. the old name Tavari, I. 66, 267].

Note: N adj. taur mighty, vast, overwhelming, huge, awful, is blend of *tārā (= Q tбra lofty), *taurā masterful, mighty (tur). It affected the sense of taur forest (only used of huge forests).

TAY- extend, make long(er). Q taina lengthened, extended; taita to prolong; taile lengthening, extension. N taen long (and thin).

TE?- line, direction. Q tie path, course, line, direction, way (*te?e), N line, way. Q tйra, N tоr straight, right. [This stem was changed to teс, and the ulterior form of Q tйra, N tоr given as *teсrā. There is also a very rough additional entry teс (see below).]

TEK- make a mark, write or draw (signs or letters). Q teke writes; tehta a mark (in writing), sign, diacritic Ц as andatehta Сlong-markТ. *tekla: Q tekil pen. *tekmē letter, symbol: Q tengwa letter, tengwanda alphabet; tengwe writing, tengwesta grammar. N teitho write; teith mark (as andeith, ON anda-tektha); tоw letter (*tekmē); tegl, tegol pen. Q tenkele writing system, spelling; tekko stroke of pen or brush (΄) when not used as long mark.

TEL-, TELU- *telmā˘,-ē˘ hood, covering. Q telme (cf. telmello telmanna from the hood to base [sic], from crown to foot, top to bottom); telta- to canopy, overshadow, screen; telume dome, (especially) dome of heaven. Cf. Telumehtar Сwarrior of the skyТ, name of Orion. N telu dome, high roof; daedelu canopy (see day); ortheli roof, screen above, orthelian canopy. [Telumehtar reappears from the Lost Tales (Telimektar, Telumektar).]

T…LEK- stalk, stem, leg. Q telko leg, analogical pl. telqi, N telch (pl. tilch) stem.

TELEP- silver, see kyelep.

TELES- elf, sea-elf, third tribe of the Eldar. Q Teler, pl. Teleri; Telerin Telenrian; general pl. Telelli, Telellie СTeler-folkТ. Originally the sense was Сhindmost, tarrierТ; cf. Q tella hindmost, last, telle rear (*tйlesā); N tele end, rear, hindmost part (pl. telei); adel behind, in rear (of). Some forms show blending with kyel, q.v. [On the meaning of Teleri see the Lhammas І2 and QS І27.]

TE—- N line, row (< *tēńe; tЬr (*tenrā) straight. Q tйma row, series, line; tea straight line, road. [See stem te? (changed to teс), where the derivative words are different formations.]

TER-, TERES- pierce. *terēwā piercing, keen: Q tereva fine, acute; N trоw fine, slender, Ilk. trкw. Cf. Q tere, ter through; N trо through, and as prefix tre-, tri; ON tre unstressed prefix, see bat, nar; prep. trн. *terēn(ē): Q teren (terene) slender; Terendul, name (Сslender-darkТ) [dul, ndul]. [The name Terendul occurs in The Lost Road (p. 66).]

THAR- across, beyond. Thar-gelion; Thar-bad [?Crossway]. [Scribbled additional entry.]

THĒ- look (see or seem). N thоr (*thкrк) look, face, expression, countenance; cf. Cranthir Ruddy-face [karбn], Gostir older Gorsthir Сdread-glanceТ, dragon-name [gos]. N thio to seem, thia it appears.

THEL-, THELES- sister (cf. tor, toron- brother [tor]). ON wathel sister, associate, N gwathel pl. gwethil. N thкl, thelei sister, also muinthel, pl. muinthil [see moy]. Q seler, pl. selli sister; ON thele, thelehi (thelesi); Q oselle [see wō˘] sister, associate. Usually used of blood-kin in Q was onуne, see nō, ono; cf. ON wanъre kinswoman, N gwanur kinsman or kinswoman [wō˘].

THIL- (variant of SIL, q.v.) N Ithil poetic name of the Moon (Rhвn) = Q Isil Сthe SheenТ; thilio to glister. Cf. Belthil, Galathilion, names of the Elder of the Two Trees Ц but these may contain the variant sil.

THIN- (cf. tin). *thindi pallid, grey, wan: Q sinde grey. Sindo name of ElweТs brother, in Telerian form Findo, Ilk. Thind, later in Doriath called Thingol (i.e. Thind + gфl wise, see ngol) or Torthingol [tā] King Thingol, also with title Tor Tin-duma СKing of TwilightТ [tin], N Aran Dinnu. N thind, thinn grey, pale; IIk. thind. Q sinye evening (N Жthin); N thinna. Q sinta- fade (sintane), ON thintha.

THŌN- Ilk. thфn pine-tree. N thaun pl. thuin is probably an early loan-word, with Ilk. ō treated as ON ō < ā. Ilk. Dor-thonion СLand of PinesТ, name of mountainous forest N. of Doriath and afterwards becoming Taur-na-Fuin, a punning alteration of Dor-na-Thuin (Noldorin translation of Ilk. Dor-thonion).

THOR-, THORON- Q soron (and sorne), pl. sorni eagle; N thфr and thoron, pl. therein Ц thoron is properly old gen. sg. = ON thoronen, Q sornen, appearing in names as Cil-thoron, or Cil-thorondor [kil]. Ilk. thorn, pl. thurin. Q Sorontar (name of) King of Eagles, N Thorondor, Ilk. Thorntor = Torthurnion.[Added:] Cf. name Elthor(o)n = eagle of sky.

(The following was added in hastily above the entry thor, thoron: СTHOR- = come swooping down; cf. Brilthor. Adj. thфr swooping, leaping down; thуrod torrent.Т I take this to be an indication of the root-sense of thor eagle.]

THŪ- puff, blow. Q sъya- breathe; sъle breath. Cf. Sъlimo surname of Manwe (wind-god). N thuio breathe; thыl breath.

THUR- surround, fence, ward, hedge in, secrete. Ilk. thъren guarded, hidden. Cf. Ilk. Garthurian Hidden Realm (= Doriath), sc. garрthurian; Noldorinized as Arthurien, more completely as Ar(р)thoren: thoren *thбurē) p.p. of thoro- fence [see ?ar]. Thuringwethil (woman of) secret shadow, Doriathren name (N Dolwethil) assumed by Tinъviel as a bat-shaped fay [wath]. [Cf. the Lay of Leithian line 3954, where a marginal note explains Thuringwethil as Сshe of hidden shadowТ (III. 297, 304). The present entry retains the story of the Lay: it was Lъthien who called herself by this name before Morgoth (see III. 306).]

THUS- (related to thū?) *tausā: Q saura foul, evil-smelling, putrid. N thaw corrupt, rotten; thы stench, as proper name Thы chief servant of Morgoth, also called Mor-thu, Q Sauro or Sauron or Sъro = Thы. [In the original draft for the chapter A Knife in the Dark in The Lord of the Rings Frodo (but not there called Frodo) cries Elbereth! Gilthoniel! Gurth i Morthu!]

TIK- (cf. pik) Q tikse dot, tiny mark, point; amatikse, nuntikse [indicated in the manuscript to mean dots or points placed above (amatikse) or below (nuntikse) the line of writing. Added entry].

TIL- point, horn. Q tilde point, horn; cf. Ta-niqe-til (g. sg. tilden), N tild, till horn. O Tilion Сthe HornedТ, name of the man in the Moon; N Tilion. Q neltil (neltildi), N nelthil triangle (see nel). [Cf. QS І75: marginal note by ∆lfwine to the name Tilion: СhyrnedТ (Old English, СhornedТ). It is strange that Tilion is here Сthe man in the MoonТ: in QS (as in Q, IV. 97) he was Сa young hunter of the company of OromлТ. Is the implication that in later ages the myth of Tilion became the story of the Man in the Moon? (see I. 202)]

TIN- (variant of (?) and in any case affected by thin, q.v.) sparkle, emit slender (silver, pale) beams. Q tine it glints, tintina it sparkles; *tinmē sparkle, glint: Q tinwe sparkle (star), [struck out: cf. Tinwetar, Tinwerontar star-queen, title of Varda;] tin-dуme starlit dusk (see domo); tingilya, tingilinde a twinkling star (see gil).

N tinno to glint; tinw spark, small star, tint spark; gildin silver spark (see gil); *tindumh, tindu, tinnu dusk, twilight, early night (without moon). Cf. Aran Dinnu King of Twilight, name given by Gnomes to Thingol, called by Ilkorins Tor Tin-duma. Ilk. tim spark, star, tingla- sparkle; tindum starlight, twilight. Q tinda glinting, silver; tinde a glint.

N Tindъmhiell, Tinnъviel, Tinъviel = Сdaughter of twilightТ, a kenning of the nightingale, Q Tindуmerel (see sel-d: *Tin-dōmiselde), name given by Beren to Lъthien daughter of Thingol. N ordinary name of nightingale is dъlind, dъlin [do?, lin2]; Q lуmelinde; Ilk. mur(i)lind, myr(i)lind (see mor). N moerilind; merilin was Noldorinized from Ilk. murilind, since mori did not = СnightТ in N.

The СtwilightТ sense was largely due to thin, q.v.

[Against this entry is written in the margin: СTintanie, Tintalle Kindler = Varda; Q tinta- to kindle, make to sparkТ: see p. 382. Other marginal notes are: Сcf. TimbreрilТ, which thus reappears from Q, IV. 82 (see barath); СTindubel twilit cityТ (see pel(es)).]

TING-, TANG- onomatopoeic (cf. ding). Q tinge, tango, twang; tinga-; N tang bowstring.

TINKŌ- metal. Q tinko; N tinc.

TIR- watch, guard. Q tirin I watch, pa.t. time; N tiri or tirio, pa.t. tiriant. Q tirion watch-tower, tower. N tirith watch, guard; cf. Minnas-tirith [mini]. Cf. Q halatir (-tirnen), PQ *khalatrinwō˘ Сfish-watcherТ, N heledirn = kingfisher; Dalath Dirnen СGuarded PlainТ; Palantir СFar-seerТ. [For the etymology of СkingfisherТ see khal1, skal2 Ц Palantir was a later addition, as also under pal.]

TIT- Q titta, little, tiny; N tithen (pl. tithin).

TIW- fat, thick. *tiukā: Q tiuka thick, fat; ON tъka, N tыg, Ilk, tiog. *tiukō thigh: Q tiuko. Q tiuya- swell, grow fat; ON tuio-, N tuio to swell (associated with tuy).

TOL1-OTH/OT eight. Q tolto; N toloth.

TOL2- tollo island: Q tol, pl. tolle; N toll, pl. tyll; cf. Tol-eressea, N Toll-ereb.

TOP- cover, roof. *tōp-: Q tуpa roof; tуpa- to roof; tope covers (pa.t. tompe). N tobo cover, roof over; tobas roofing.

TOR- brother (cf. thel- sister). ON wator brother (wa = together), especially used of those not brothers by blood, but sworn brothers or associates; N gwador (gwedeir). ON toron brother, pl. toroni. N Жtфr, terein; usually used was the cpd. muindor with analogical pl. muindyr (see moy, moina).Q toron, torni brother; otorno sworn brother, associate [wō˘]; otornasse brotherhood; but usually of the blood-kinship was used onуro (*wa-nōrō = of one kin, see wō˘, nō) = ON wanъro, N gwanur kinsman.

TOW- Q wool; toa of wool, woollen; N taw.

TUB- *tumbu deep valley, under or among hills: Q tumbo, N tum. Cf. Tumladen Сthe level valeТ [lat], the vale of Gondolin. *tubnā deep: Q tumna lowlying, deep, low; N tofn, Ilk. tovon. *Utubnu name of MelkoТs vaults in the North: Q Utumno; N Udun; Ilk. Uduvon; Dan. Utum.

TUG- *tūgu: Q tuo; ON tъgo, N ; Ilk. tыgh,; muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength. Cf. name Tuor (older tūghor = tū-gor Сstrength-vigourТ, see gor). *tunga: Q tunga taut, tight (of strings, resonant); N tong; Ilk. tung.

TUK-draw, bring. Q tukin I draw; N tegi (3 sg. tфg) to lead, bring; Ilk. toga he brings.

TUL- come, approach, move towards (point of speaker). Q tulin I come; N teli to come, tфl he comes. *tultā make come: Q tulta- send for, fetch, summon; N toltho fetch; Dk. tolda he fetches.

TULUK- Q tulka firm, strong, immoveable, steadfast; cf. Tulkas (Tulkatho, Tulkassen). tulko (*tulku) support, prop. EN tolog stalwart, trusty. tulu (*tulukmē, ON tulugme) support, prop. Tulkas was also called Ender (see nder), EN Enner.

TUMPU- hump. Q tumpo; N tump.

TUN- *tundu: Q tundo; N tund, tunn hill, mound, *tundā: Q tunda tall; N tond, tonn; Ilk. tund. *Tunā˘: Q Tъn, Tбna Elf-city in Valinor; ON Tъna, N Tыn. Cf. N mindon isolated hill (*mini-tunda), especially a hill with a watch-tower. [Under mini N mindon is derived from *minitaun.ЦI cannot explain why Tъn appears here as a Q form: see QS І39, and commentary on ІІ39, 45.]

TUP- *tupsē: Q tupse thatch; N taus; Ilk. tuss.

TUR- power, control, mastery, victory. *tūrē mastery, victory: Q tъre; N tыr. Cf. name Turambar, N Tъramarth СMaster of FateТ, name taken in pride by Tъrin (Q Turindo) Ц which contains the same element tūr victory, + indo mood (see id).

*tūrō and in cpds. turo, tur, master, victor, lord: cf. Q Fantur, N Fannor. Q turin I wield, control, govern, pa.t. turne; N ortheri, 3 sg. orthor (*ortur-) master, conquer; tortho to wield, control. *taurā: Q taura mighty; N taur vast, mighty, overwhelming, awful Ц also high, sublime (see tбwar). [Added:] Turkil, cf. Tarkil = Nъmenуrean [khil].

TURЏM- *turumā: Q turma shield; *turъmbē: T trumbe shield; Ilk. trumb, trum.

TUS- *tussā: Q tussa bush, N toss low-growing tree (as maple, hawthorn, blackthorn, holly, etc.): e.g. eregdos = holly-tree. See erйk, уr-ni.

TUY- spring, sprout (cf. tiw grow fat, swell?). Q tuia sprouts, springs; N tuio. *tuilē: Q tuile spring-time; also used = dayspring, early morn = artuile [ar1]. Cf. tuilindo (for *tuilelindō Сspring-singerТ) swallow, N tuilind, tuilin [lin2]. *tuimā: Q tuima a sprout, bud; N tuiw, tui.

TYAL- play. Q tyalie sport, play, game; tyalin I play. N telio, teilio (*tyaliā-) to play. Cf. tyalaсgandō = harp-player (Q tyalangan): N Talagand, one of the chiefs of Gondolin (see сgan). N te(i)lien sport, play.

TYUL- stand up (straight). *tyulmā mast: Q tyulma. *tulussē poplar-tree: Q tyulusse: N tulus (pl. tylys) [see li].


UB- abound. Q ъvea abundant, in very great number, very large; ъve abundance, great quantity. N ofr (ovr), ovor abundant (*ubrā); ovras crowd, heap, etc.; ovro to abound.

UGU- and UMU- negative stems: Q uin and umin I do not, am not; pa.t. ъme. Q prefix ъ (< ugu, or) not, un-, in- (usually with bad sense), as vanimor fair folk = (men and) elves, ъvani-mor monsters. Cf. gū, mū. [Under ban the Vanimor are the Children of the Valar; see p. 452.ЦThis entry was first written, like all others in this part of the manuscript, in pencil, but then overwritten in ink; it was struck out, in pencil, but this may have been done before it was overwritten. Apparently later pencilled additions are: [Q] ъmea evil, [N] um bad, evil.]

ULU- pour, flow. Q ulya- pour (intr. pa.t. ulle, tr. ulyane); ulunde flood; ъlea pouring, flooding, flowing. *Ulumō name of the Vala of all waters: Q Ulmo; N Ulu, usually called Guiar (see way). N oeil, eil it is raining (*ulyā); *ulda torrent, mountain-stream, EN old, oll.

ЏLUG- T ulga, Ilk. olg hideous, horrible; *ulgundō monster, deformed and hideous creature: Q ulundo; T ulgundo, Ilk. ulgund, ulgon, ulion; N ulund, ulun. Also ЏLGU: cf. Ul- in Ulfang, Uldor, Ulfast, Ulwarth, names of Swartmen. [These names of the Easteriings were of course given to them by the Elves (as is specifically stated of those with the element bor); but cf. the Lhammas І10, where this is not so.]

U—G- *uсgwē: Q ungwe gloom; ungo cloud, dark shadow. Cf. Ungweliante, Ungoliante the Spider, ally of Morgoth (cf. slig). Ilk. ungol darkness, ungor black, dark, gloomy. In N not used except in name Ungoliant, which is really taken from Q. The name of the Spider in N is Delduthling (see dyel, do?).

UNU- (cf. nū˘, ndū). undu a parallel form in Q made to equal ama, amba up [am2]: down, under, beneath.

UNUK- Q unqe hollow; unka- hollow out; unqa adj. hollow.

UR- be hot. Q ъr fire, N ыr. Q Џrin f. ( Џrinden) name of the Sun. Q uruite, ъruva fiery. Cf. Dagor Vreged-ъr Battle of .Sudden Fire [berйk]. Q urya- blaze. [This entry was struck through, and beside it the following written very roughly:] UR- wide, large, great. Џrion. Q ъra large; N ыr wide.

USUK- *us(u)k-wē: Q usqe reek; N osp; Ilk. usc smoke.

UY- Q uile long trailing plant, especially seaweed; earuile seaweed [ay]; Uinen (Uinenden) wife of Osse, ON Uinenda, EN Uinend, Uinen (cf. nen); [N] uil seaweed, oeruil.


[The stems in W-form the concluding entries in the manuscript, and unlike those that precede were carefully written in ink, with some pencilled changes and additions.]

WĀ-, WAWA-, WAIWA- blow. Q vaiwa, wawa, wind; N gwaew; Ilk. gwau.

WA?- stain, soil. *wa?: Q vбra soiled, dirty; N gwaur (ON wуra); Ilk. gфr. *wahtā- to soil, stain: Q vahta; N gwatho (ON wattуbe); Ilk. gуda-. *wahtē a stain: ON watte, N gwath coalescing with *wath, q.v. [wath]; Ilk. gфd dirtiness, filth. *wahsē: Q vakse stain; ON wasse, N gwass. Cf. Iarwath СBlood-stainТ [yar], surname of Tъrin.

WAN- depart, go away, disappear, vanish. Q vanya- go, depart, disappear, pa.t. vanne; vanwa gone, departed, vanished, lost, past; vanwie the past, past time. This stem in N replaced kwal in application to death (of elves by fading, or weariness): thus gwanw (*wanwē) death; gwanath death; gwann (*wannā) departed, dead. Note: gwanw, gwanath are the Сact of dyingТ, not Сdeath, DeathТ as a state or abstract: that is guru (see сgur). N gwanno (wanta-) depart, die. [The stem wan was changed in pencil to van.]

WA-N- goose: Q vān, wān (pl. vāni) goose; N gwaun, pl. guin.

WAR- give way, yield, not endure, let down, betray. ON warie betray, cheat; awarta forsake, abandon. EN gwerio betray; gwarth betrayer; awartha forsake; awarth abandonment Cf. Ulwarth. [This entry was an addition in pencil. On Uhvarth see ъlug and note.]

WATH- shade. ON watha, N gwath; Ilk. gwath. Cf. Ilk. Urthin (> N Eredwethion). [This entry was an addition in pencil. Above Urthin was written Gwethion.]

WAY- enfold. *wāyā envelope, especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls: Q w- vaia, w- vaiya; ON *wōia, uia, N ui. *Vāyārō name of Ulmo, lord of Vaiya: Q Vaiaro, N Uiar the usual N name of Ulmo. [The stem way was changed in pencil to vay. Under ulu it is said that Ulmo was usually called Guiar in N.]

WED- bind. *wedā: ON weda bond, N gweр; Ilk. gweр. N gwedi, pa.t. gwend, gwenn later gweрant, bind. N angweр Сiron-bondТ, chain. *wЬ?dē bond, troth, compact, oath: Q vēre; ON waide, N gwaeр. *wed-tā: Q vesta- swear (to do something), contract, make a compact; vesta contract; vestale oath. N gwest oath; gwesto to swear; gowest contract, compact, treaty, Q ovesta [wō˘]. [The Q words derived from *wed-tā were struck out in pencil, with the note that they Сall fell with derivatives of besТ . These same words, with different meaning, are found under bes: vesta matrimony, vesta- to wed; vestale wedding. The reference in the original here is to bes (not as previously to bed: see note to lep).]

WEG- (manly) vigour. Q vie manhood, vigour (*we?ē); vea adult, manly, vigorous; veaner (adult) man [nēr]; veasse vigour. veo (*wegō) man. The latter in compound form *-wego is frequent in masculine names, taking Q form -we (< weg).This can be distinguished from -we (-wē abstract suffix) by remaining -we in N, from ON -wega. The abstract suffix occurs in the names Manwe, Fionwe, Elwe, Ingwe, Finwe. These names do not occur in Exilic forms *Manw, *Fionw, *Elw, *FinwЦsince Finwe for instance remained in Valinor [see phin]. These names were used even by Gnomes in Qenya form, assisted by the resemblance to -we in other names, as Bronwe, ON Bronwega (see borуn). In N otherwise this stem only survives in gweth manhood, also used = man-power, troop of able-bodied men, host, regiment (cf. Forodweith Northmen). *weg-tē [This entry, the last under W as the manuscript was originally written, was left unfinished.ЦUnder phor the form is equally clearly Forodwaith.]

WEN-, WENED- maiden. Q wende, vende; N gwend, gwenn. Often found in feminine names, as Morwen, Eleрwen: since the latter show no -d even in archaic spelling, they probably contain a form wen-: cf. Ilk. gwen girl; Q wйne, vйne and venesse virginity; N gweneth virginity. [Added:] Some names, especially those of men, may contain gwend bond, friendship: see wed. [The N noun gwend is not given under wed.ЦAgainst this entry is written: СTransfer to gwenТ .ЦIn the narrative texts (QS І29, AB 2 annal 245) the name Eledhwen was interpreted as СElfsheenТЦand this survived much later in the Grey Annals; on the other hand under eled the translation was changed from СElf-fairТ to СElf-maidТ.]

WEY- wind, weave. Q, owing to change wei > wai, confused this with way; but cf. Vaire (*weirē) СWeaverТ, name of the doom-goddess, wife of Mandos: N Gwоr. N gwо net, web. [The stem wey was changed in pencil to vey.]

WIG- *wingē: Q winge foam, crest of wave, crest. Cf. wingil nymph; Wingelot, Wingelуte Сfoam-flowerТ. EarendelТs boat (N Gwingloth) [lot(h)]. N, Ilk. gwing spindrift, flying spray. [This entry was an addition in pencil.ЦWith wingil cf. the old name Wingildi, I. 66, 273.]

WIL- fly, float in air. *wilwā air, lower air, distinct from the СupperТ of the stars, or the СouterТ (see way); Q wilwa > vilwa; N gwelw air (as substance); gwelwen = Q vilwa; Ilk. gwelu, gwelo. Q vilin I fly, pa.t. ville. N gwilith СairТ as a region = Q vilwa; cf. gilith = Q ilmen (see gil). Q wilwarin (pl. wilwarindi) butterfly; T vilverin; N gwilwileth; Ilk. gwilwering.[The name Wilwa of the lower air is found also in the preparatory outline for The Fall of Nъmenor (p. 12), whereas Wilwa in the Ambarkanta was changed throughout to Vista, and so also on the accompanying world-diagrams (IV. 240-7). By subsequent pencilled changes the forms *wilwā, Q wilwa were changed to *wilmā, Q wilma; Q wilwa > vilwa was struck out; and Q vilin was changed to wilin. A new stem wis with derivative Q vista (see below) was introduced, either at the same time or later, but the stem wil was allowed to stand.]

WIN-, WIND- *windi blue-grey, pale blue or grey: Q vinde, N gwind, gwinn. *winyā: Q winya, vinya evening; N gwein, pl. gwоnТ, Ilk. gwini, gwine. *winta- fade: Q vinta-, pa.t. vinte, vintane; ON wintha it fades, advesperascit [Сevening approachesТ], N gwinna. [This entry was struck out, and Сsee thinТ written against it. The following pencilled addition may have been made either before or after the original entry was rejected, since it is not itself struck through:] *windiā pale blue: Q win(d)ya, vinya; N gwind.

WIS- Q vista air as substance. [See note to wil.]

WŌ- together. The form wo would if stressed > wa in Eldarin. In Q the form , and the unstressed wo, combined to produce prefix ō˘- СtogetherТ: as in o-torno (see tor), o-selle (see thel), and many other wonds, e.g. ovesta (see wed). In N we have gwa- when stressed, as in gwanur (= Q onуro) [tor], gwastar (see star), and frequently, but only in old cpds. The living form was go-, developed from gwa- in unstressed positions Ц originally mainly in verbs, but thence spreading to verbal derivatives as in gowest (see wed). In many words this had become a fixed element. Thus not- count, nut- tie coalesced in Exilic *nod-; but СcountТ was always expressed by gonod- unless some other prefix was added, as in arnediad [ar2]. In Ilk. owing to coalescence of gwo, ?o (in go) this prefix was lost [see ?ō˘].


[As already mentioned (p. 384) I have changed the representation of the Сsemi-vowelТ j to y, and therefore give these stems here, at the end of the alphabet. The section belongs however among the .entirely СunreconstructedТ parts of the work, and consists, like the I-stems, only of very rough and difficult notes.]

YA- there, over there; of time, ago, whereas en yonder [en] of time points to the future. Q yana that (the former); formerly, ago: yenya last year [yen]; yбra ancient, belonging to or descending from former times; yбre former days; yalъme former times [lu]; yasse, yalъmesse, yбresse once upon a time; yбrea, yalъmea olden. N iaur ancient, old(er); io (ia?) ago. СOldТ (in mortal sense, decrepit) is ingem of persons, СyearsickТ; СoldТ (decrepit, worn) of things is gem [geng-wā]. See gyer.

YAB- fruit. Q yбve fruit; N iau corn. Yavanna Fruit-giver. (cf. ana1), N Ivann.

YAG- ywan, gape. *yagu- gulf: N ia, chiefly in place-names like Moria = Black Gulf. *yagwē: Q yбwe ravine, cleft, gulf; N iau. Q yanga- to yawn.

YAK- *yakta-: Q yat (yaht-) neck; N iaeth. Q yatta narrow neck, isthmus.

YAN- Cf. ayan. Q yбna holy place, fane, sanctuary; N iaun.

YAR- blood. Q yбr (yaren); N iвr; Iarwath Blood-stained (see wa?), surname of Tъrin. Ilk, фr blood; arn red; cf. Aros (= N iaros) name of river with reddish water.

YAT- join. *yantā yoke, beside *yatmā: Q yanta yoke; yanwe bridge, joining, isthmus. N iant yoke; ianw bridge (eilianw Тsky-bridgeТ, rainbow, see ?el).

YAY- mock. Q yaiwe, ON yaiwe, mocking, scorn; N iaew.

YEL- daughter. Q yelde; N iell, -iel. [This entry was removed with the change of etymology of N iell: see sel-d and yō, yon. A new formulation of the stem yel was introduced, but was in turn rejected. This gave:] YEL- friend: Q yelda friendly, dear as friend; yelme; -iel in names = [Old English] -wine (distinguish N -iel derived from selda).

YEN- year. Q yйn (yen-); linyenwa old, having many years [li]. Last day of year = qantien, N penninar [kwat]; first year, first day minyen [mini]. Endien Midyear [йned] was a week outside the months, between the sixth and seventh months, [?dedicated] to the Trees: [also called] Aldalemnar, see lep. N оn year; нnias annals; iрrin year (= ien-rinde, see rin); edinar (at-yēn-ar) anniversary day; ennin = Valian Year; ingem Сyear-sickТ = old (mortally) [geng-wā]; ifant aged, long-lived (= yen-panta > impanta > in-fant) [kwat]. [The word Inias СAnnalsТ occurs in the title-pages given on pp. 221-2.]

YES- desire. Q yesta desire; N iest wish.

YŌ, YON- son. Q yondo, -ion; N ionn, -ion. [The following was added when the entry yel had been removed:] feminine yēn yend = daughter; Q yende, yen.

YŪ- two, both. N ui- twi-, as uial twilight [kal]. Q yūyo both.

YUK- employ, use. N iuith use, iuitho [?enjoy].

YUL- smoulder. Q yъla ember, smouldering wood; yulme red [?heat], smouldering heat; yulma brand. ON iolf brand; iыl embers.

YUR- run. ON yurine I run, yura course; N iфr course.

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